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"Topic": models, code, and papers

P-SIF: Document Embeddings Using Partition Averaging

May 18, 2020
Vivek Gupta, Ankit Saw, Pegah Nokhiz, Praneeth Netrapalli, Piyush Rai, Partha Talukdar

Simple weighted averaging of word vectors often yields effective representations for sentences which outperform sophisticated seq2seq neural models in many tasks. While it is desirable to use the same method to represent documents as well, unfortunately, the effectiveness is lost when representing long documents involving multiple sentences. One of the key reasons is that a longer document is likely to contain words from many different topics; hence, creating a single vector while ignoring all the topical structure is unlikely to yield an effective document representation. This problem is less acute in single sentences and other short text fragments where the presence of a single topic is most likely. To alleviate this problem, we present P-SIF, a partitioned word averaging model to represent long documents. P-SIF retains the simplicity of simple weighted word averaging while taking a document's topical structure into account. In particular, P-SIF learns topic-specific vectors from a document and finally concatenates them all to represent the overall document. We provide theoretical justifications on the correctness of P-SIF. Through a comprehensive set of experiments, we demonstrate P-SIF's effectiveness compared to simple weighted averaging and many other baselines.

* 15 Pages, 3 Figures, 13 Tables, AAAI 2020, Blog : 

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Learning from Untrimmed Videos: Self-Supervised Video Representation Learning with Hierarchical Consistency

Apr 06, 2022
Zhiwu Qing, Shiwei Zhang, Ziyuan Huang, Yi Xu, Xiang Wang, Mingqian Tang, Changxin Gao, Rong Jin, Nong Sang

Natural videos provide rich visual contents for self-supervised learning. Yet most existing approaches for learning spatio-temporal representations rely on manually trimmed videos, leading to limited diversity in visual patterns and limited performance gain. In this work, we aim to learn representations by leveraging more abundant information in untrimmed videos. To this end, we propose to learn a hierarchy of consistencies in videos, i.e., visual consistency and topical consistency, corresponding respectively to clip pairs that tend to be visually similar when separated by a short time span and share similar topics when separated by a long time span. Specifically, a hierarchical consistency learning framework HiCo is presented, where the visually consistent pairs are encouraged to have the same representation through contrastive learning, while the topically consistent pairs are coupled through a topical classifier that distinguishes whether they are topic related. Further, we impose a gradual sampling algorithm for proposed hierarchical consistency learning, and demonstrate its theoretical superiority. Empirically, we show that not only HiCo can generate stronger representations on untrimmed videos, it also improves the representation quality when applied to trimmed videos. This is in contrast to standard contrastive learning that fails to learn appropriate representations from untrimmed videos.

* CVPR2022; Project page is: 

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Adaptive Parameterization for Neural Dialogue Generation

Jan 18, 2020
Hengyi Cai, Hongshen Chen, Cheng Zhang, Yonghao Song, Xiaofang Zhao, Dawei Yin

Neural conversation systems generate responses based on the sequence-to-sequence (SEQ2SEQ) paradigm. Typically, the model is equipped with a single set of learned parameters to generate responses for given input contexts. When confronting diverse conversations, its adaptability is rather limited and the model is hence prone to generate generic responses. In this work, we propose an {\bf Ada}ptive {\bf N}eural {\bf D}ialogue generation model, \textsc{AdaND}, which manages various conversations with conversation-specific parameterization. For each conversation, the model generates parameters of the encoder-decoder by referring to the input context. In particular, we propose two adaptive parameterization mechanisms: a context-aware and a topic-aware parameterization mechanism. The context-aware parameterization directly generates the parameters by capturing local semantics of the given context. The topic-aware parameterization enables parameter sharing among conversations with similar topics by first inferring the latent topics of the given context and then generating the parameters with respect to the distributional topics. Extensive experiments conducted on a large-scale real-world conversational dataset show that our model achieves superior performance in terms of both quantitative metrics and human evaluations.

* Published as a long paper in EMNLP 2019 

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StackOverflow vs Kaggle: A Study of Developer Discussions About Data Science

Jun 06, 2020
David Hin

Software developers are increasingly required to understand fundamental Data science (DS) concepts. Recently, the presence of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) has dramatically increased in the development of user applications, whether they are leveraged through frameworks or implemented from scratch. These topics attract much discussion on online platforms. This paper conducts large-scale qualitative and quantitative experiments to study the characteristics of 197836 posts from StackOverflow and Kaggle. Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modelling is used to extract twenty-four DS discussion topics. The main findings include that TensorFlow-related topics were most prevalent in StackOverflow, while meta discussion topics were the prevalent ones on Kaggle. StackOverflow tends to include lower-level troubleshooting, while Kaggle focuses on practicality and optimising leaderboard performance. In addition, across both communities, DS discussion is increasing at a dramatic rate. While TensorFlow discussion on StackOverflow is slowing, interest in Keras is rising. Finally, ensemble algorithms are the most mentioned ML/DL algorithms in Kaggle but are rarely discussed on StackOverflow. These findings can help educators and researchers to more effectively tailor and prioritise efforts in researching and communicating DS concepts towards different developer communities.

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Learning by Examples Based on Multi-level Optimization

Sep 22, 2021
Shentong Mo, Pengtao Xie

Learning by examples, which learns to solve a new problem by looking into how similar problems are solved, is an effective learning method in human learning. When a student learns a new topic, he/she finds out exemplar topics that are similar to this new topic and studies the exemplar topics to deepen the understanding of the new topic. We aim to investigate whether this powerful learning skill can be borrowed from humans to improve machine learning as well. In this work, we propose a novel learning approach called Learning By Examples (LBE). Our approach automatically retrieves a set of training examples that are similar to query examples and predicts labels for query examples by using class labels of the retrieved examples. We propose a three-level optimization framework to formulate LBE which involves three stages of learning: learning a Siamese network to retrieve similar examples; learning a matching network to make predictions on query examples by leveraging class labels of retrieved similar examples; learning the ``ground-truth'' similarities between training examples by minimizing the validation loss. We develop an efficient algorithm to solve the LBE problem and conduct extensive experiments on various benchmarks where the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on both supervised and few-shot learning.

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HiGitClass: Keyword-Driven Hierarchical Classification of GitHub Repositories

Oct 16, 2019
Yu Zhang, Frank F. Xu, Sha Li, Yu Meng, Xuan Wang, Qi Li, Jiawei Han

GitHub has become an important platform for code sharing and scientific exchange. With the massive number of repositories available, there is a pressing need for topic-based search. Even though the topic label functionality has been introduced, the majority of GitHub repositories do not have any labels, impeding the utility of search and topic-based analysis. This work targets the automatic repository classification problem as \textit{keyword-driven hierarchical classification}. Specifically, users only need to provide a label hierarchy with keywords to supply as supervision. This setting is flexible, adaptive to the users' needs, accounts for the different granularity of topic labels and requires minimal human effort. We identify three key challenges of this problem, namely (1) the presence of multi-modal signals; (2) supervision scarcity and bias; (3) supervision format mismatch. In recognition of these challenges, we propose the \textsc{HiGitClass} framework, comprising of three modules: heterogeneous information network embedding; keyword enrichment; topic modeling and pseudo document generation. Experimental results on two GitHub repository collections confirm that \textsc{HiGitClass} is superior to existing weakly-supervised and dataless hierarchical classification methods, especially in its ability to integrate both structured and unstructured data for repository classification.

* 10 pages; Accepted to ICDM 2019 

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CODEC: Complex Document and Entity Collection

May 09, 2022
Iain Mackie, Paul Owoicho, Carlos Gemmell, Sophie Fischer, Sean MacAvaney, Jeffrey Dalton

CODEC is a document and entity ranking benchmark that focuses on complex research topics. We target essay-style information needs of social science researchers, i.e. "How has the UK's Open Banking Regulation benefited Challenger Banks?". CODEC includes 42 topics developed by researchers and a new focused web corpus with semantic annotations including entity links. This resource includes expert judgments on 17,509 documents and entities (416.9 per topic) from diverse automatic and interactive manual runs. The manual runs include 387 query reformulations, providing data for query performance prediction and automatic rewriting evaluation. CODEC includes analysis of state-of-the-art systems, including dense retrieval and neural re-ranking. The results show the topics are challenging with headroom for document and entity ranking improvement. Query expansion with entity information shows significant gains on document ranking, demonstrating the resource's value for evaluating and improving entity-oriented search. We also show that the manual query reformulations significantly improve the performance of document and entity ranking. Overall, CODEC provides challenging research topics to support the development and evaluation of entity-centric search methods.

* 10 pages, SIGIR 2022 Preprint 

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Knowledge forest: a novel model to organize knowledge fragments

Dec 14, 2019
Qinghua Zheng, Jun Liu, Hongwei Zeng, Zhaotong Guo, Bei Wu, Bifan Wei

With the rapid growth of knowledge, it shows a steady trend of knowledge fragmentization. Knowledge fragmentization manifests as that the knowledge related to a specific topic in a course is scattered in isolated and autonomous knowledge sources. We term the knowledge of a facet in a specific topic as a knowledge fragment. The problem of knowledge fragmentization brings two challenges: First, knowledge is scattered in various knowledge sources, which exerts users' considerable efforts to search for the knowledge of their interested topics, thereby leading to information overload. Second, learning dependencies which refer to the precedence relationships between topics in the learning process are concealed by the isolation and autonomy of knowledge sources, thus causing learning disorientation. To solve the knowledge fragmentization problem, we propose a novel knowledge organization model, knowledge forest, which consists of facet trees and learning dependencies. Facet trees can organize knowledge fragments with facet hyponymy to alleviate information overload. Learning dependencies can organize disordered topics to cope with learning disorientation. We conduct extensive experiments on three manually constructed datasets from the Data Structure, Data Mining, and Computer Network courses, and the experimental results show that knowledge forest can effectively organize knowledge fragments, and alleviate information overload and learning disorientation.

* 3 pages, 1 figures, Accepted for publication in Science China Information Science 

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GRADE: Automatic Graph-Enhanced Coherence Metric for Evaluating Open-Domain Dialogue Systems

Oct 08, 2020
Lishan Huang, Zheng Ye, Jinghui Qin, Liang Lin, Xiaodan Liang

Automatically evaluating dialogue coherence is a challenging but high-demand ability for developing high-quality open-domain dialogue systems. However, current evaluation metrics consider only surface features or utterance-level semantics, without explicitly considering the fine-grained topic transition dynamics of dialogue flows. Here, we first consider that the graph structure constituted with topics in a dialogue can accurately depict the underlying communication logic, which is a more natural way to produce persuasive metrics. Capitalized on the topic-level dialogue graph, we propose a new evaluation metric GRADE, which stands for Graph-enhanced Representations for Automatic Dialogue Evaluation. Specifically, GRADE incorporates both coarse-grained utterance-level contextualized representations and fine-grained topic-level graph representations to evaluate dialogue coherence. The graph representations are obtained by reasoning over topic-level dialogue graphs enhanced with the evidence from a commonsense graph, including k-hop neighboring representations and hop-attention weights. Experimental results show that our GRADE significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art metrics on measuring diverse dialogue models in terms of the Pearson and Spearman correlations with human judgements. Besides, we release a new large-scale human evaluation benchmark to facilitate future research on automatic metrics.

* Long paper; EMNLP2020 

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