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"Topic": models, code, and papers

μ-MAR: Multiplane 3D Marker based Registration for Depth-sensing Cameras

Aug 04, 2017
Marcelo Saval-Calvo, Jorge Azorin-Lopez, Andres Fuster-Guillo, Higinio Mora-Mora

Many applications including object reconstruction, robot guidance, and scene mapping require the registration of multiple views from a scene to generate a complete geometric and appearance model of it. In real situations, transformations between views are unknown an it is necessary to apply expert inference to estimate them. In the last few years, the emergence of low-cost depth-sensing cameras has strengthened the research on this topic, motivating a plethora of new applications. Although they have enough resolution and accuracy for many applications, some situations may not be solved with general state-of-the-art registration methods due to the Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) and the resolution of the data provided. The problem of working with low SNR data, in general terms, may appear in any 3D system, then it is necessary to propose novel solutions in this aspect. In this paper, we propose a method, {\mu}-MAR, able to both coarse and fine register sets of 3D points provided by low-cost depth-sensing cameras, despite it is not restricted to these sensors, into a common coordinate system. The method is able to overcome the noisy data problem by means of using a model-based solution of multiplane registration. Specifically, it iteratively registers 3D markers composed by multiple planes extracted from points of multiple views of the scene. As the markers and the object of interest are static in the scenario, the transformations obtained for the markers are applied to the object in order to reconstruct it. Experiments have been performed using synthetic and real data. The synthetic data allows a qualitative and quantitative evaluation by means of visual inspection and Hausdorff distance respectively. The real data experiments show the performance of the proposal using data acquired by a Primesense Carmine RGB-D sensor. The method has been compared to several state-of-the-art methods. The ...

* Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 42, Issue 23, Pages 9353-9365 (2015) 

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Knowledge Graph Contrastive Learning for Recommendation

May 02, 2022
Yuhao Yang, Chao Huang, Lianghao Xia, Chenliang Li

Knowledge Graphs (KGs) have been utilized as useful side information to improve recommendation quality. In those recommender systems, knowledge graph information often contains fruitful facts and inherent semantic relatedness among items. However, the success of such methods relies on the high quality knowledge graphs, and may not learn quality representations with two challenges: i) The long-tail distribution of entities results in sparse supervision signals for KG-enhanced item representation; ii) Real-world knowledge graphs are often noisy and contain topic-irrelevant connections between items and entities. Such KG sparsity and noise make the item-entity dependent relations deviate from reflecting their true characteristics, which significantly amplifies the noise effect and hinders the accurate representation of user's preference. To fill this research gap, we design a general Knowledge Graph Contrastive Learning framework (KGCL) that alleviates the information noise for knowledge graph-enhanced recommender systems. Specifically, we propose a knowledge graph augmentation schema to suppress KG noise in information aggregation, and derive more robust knowledge-aware representations for items. In addition, we exploit additional supervision signals from the KG augmentation process to guide a cross-view contrastive learning paradigm, giving a greater role to unbiased user-item interactions in gradient descent and further suppressing the noise. Extensive experiments on three public datasets demonstrate the consistent superiority of our KGCL over state-of-the-art techniques. KGCL also achieves strong performance in recommendation scenarios with sparse user-item interactions, long-tail and noisy KG entities. Our implementation codes are available at

* This paper has been published as a full paper at SIGIR 2022 

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SETTI: A Self-supervised Adversarial Malware Detection Architecture in an IoT Environment

Apr 16, 2022
Marjan Golmaryami, Rahim Taheri, Zahra Pooranian, Mohammad Shojafar, Pei Xiao

In recent years, malware detection has become an active research topic in the area of Internet of Things (IoT) security. The principle is to exploit knowledge from large quantities of continuously generated malware. Existing algorithms practice available malware features for IoT devices and lack real-time prediction behaviors. More research is thus required on malware detection to cope with real-time misclassification of the input IoT data. Motivated by this, in this paper we propose an adversarial self-supervised architecture for detecting malware in IoT networks, SETTI, considering samples of IoT network traffic that may not be labeled. In the SETTI architecture, we design three self-supervised attack techniques, namely Self-MDS, GSelf-MDS and ASelf-MDS. The Self-MDS method considers the IoT input data and the adversarial sample generation in real-time. The GSelf-MDS builds a generative adversarial network model to generate adversarial samples in the self-supervised structure. Finally, ASelf-MDS utilizes three well-known perturbation sample techniques to develop adversarial malware and inject it over the self-supervised architecture. Also, we apply a defence method to mitigate these attacks, namely adversarial self-supervised training to protect the malware detection architecture against injecting the malicious samples. To validate the attack and defence algorithms, we conduct experiments on two recent IoT datasets: IoT23 and NBIoT. Comparison of the results shows that in the IoT23 dataset, the Self-MDS method has the most damaging consequences from the attacker's point of view by reducing the accuracy rate from 98% to 74%. In the NBIoT dataset, the ASelf-MDS method is the most devastating algorithm that can plunge the accuracy rate from 98% to 77%.

* 20 pages, 6 figures, 2 Tables, Submitted to ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications 

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The First Airborne Experiment of Sparse Microwave Imaging: Prototype System Design and Result Analysis

Oct 20, 2021
Zhe Zhang, Bingchen Zhang, Chenglong Jiang, Xingdong Liang, Longyong Chen, Wen Hong, Yirong Wu

In this paper we report the first airborne experiments of sparse microwave imaging, conducted in September 2013 and May 2014, using our prototype sparse microwave imaging radar system. This is the first reported imaging radar system and airborne experiment that specially designed for sparse microwave imaging. Sparse microwave imaging is a novel concept of radar imaging, it is mainly the combination of traditional radar imaging technology and newly developed sparse signal processing theory, achieving benefits in both improving the imaging quality of current microwave imaging systems and designing optimized sparse microwave imaging radar system to reduce system sampling rate towards the sparse target scenes. During recent years, many researchers focus on related topics of sparse microwave imaging, but rarely few paid attention to prototype system design and experiment. We introduce our prototype sparse microwave imaging radar system, including its system design, hardware considerations and signal processing methods. Several design principles should be considered during the system designing, including the sampling scheme, antenna, SNR, waveform, resolution, etc. We select jittered sampling in azimuth and uniform sampling in range to balance the system complexity and performance. The imaging algorithm is accelerated $\ell_q$ regularization algorithm. To test the prototype radar system and verify the effectiveness of sparse microwave imaging framework, airborne experiments are carried out using our prototype system and we achieve the first sparse microwave image successfully. We analyze the imaging performance of prototype sparse microwave radar system with different sparsities, sampling rates, SNRs and sampling schemes, using three-dimensional phase transit diagram as the evaluation tool.

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Towards Understanding Trends Manipulation in Pakistan Twitter

Sep 30, 2021
Soufia Kausar, Bilal Tahir, Muhammad Amir Mehmood

The rapid adoption of online social media platforms has transformed the way of communication and interaction. On these platforms, discussions in the form of trending topics provide a glimpse of events happening around the world in real-time. Also, these trends are used for political campaigns, public awareness, and brand promotions. Consequently, these trends are sensitive to manipulation by malicious users who aim to mislead the mass audience. In this article, we identify and study the characteristics of users involved in the manipulation of Twitter trends in Pakistan. We propose 'Manipify', a framework for automatic detection and analysis of malicious users for Twitter trends. Our framework consists of three distinct modules: i) user classifier, ii) hashtag classifier, and ii) trend analyzer. The user classifier introduces a novel approach to automatically detect manipulators using tweet content and user behaviour features. Also, the module classifies human and bot users. Next, the hashtag classifier categorizes trending hashtags into six categories assisting in examining manipulators behaviour across different categories. Finally, the trend analyzer module examines users, hashtags, and tweets for hashtag reach, linguistic features and user behaviour. Our user classifier module achieves 0.91 accuracy in classifying the manipulators. We further test Manipify on the dataset comprising of 665 trending hashtags with 5.4 million tweets and 1.9 million users. The analysis of trends reveals that the trending panel is mostly dominated by political hashtags. In addition, our results show a higher contribution of human accounts in trend manipulation as compared to bots. Furthermore, we present two case studies of hashtag-wars and anti-state propaganda to implicate the real-world application of our research.

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Impacts Towards a comprehensive assessment of the book impact by integrating multiple evaluation sources

Jul 22, 2021
Qingqing Zhou, Chengzhi Zhang

The surge in the number of books published makes the manual evaluation methods difficult to efficiently evaluate books. The use of books' citations and alternative evaluation metrics can assist manual evaluation and reduce the cost of evaluation. However, most existing evaluation research was based on a single evaluation source with coarse-grained analysis, which may obtain incomprehensive or one-sided evaluation results of book impact. Meanwhile, relying on a single resource for book assessment may lead to the risk that the evaluation results cannot be obtained due to the lack of the evaluation data, especially for newly published books. Hence, this paper measured book impact based on an evaluation system constructed by integrating multiple evaluation sources. Specifically, we conducted finer-grained mining on the multiple evaluation sources, including books' internal evaluation resources and external evaluation resources. Various technologies (e.g. topic extraction, sentiment analysis, text classification) were used to extract corresponding evaluation metrics from the internal and external evaluation resources. Then, Expert evaluation combined with analytic hierarchy process was used to integrate the evaluation metrics and construct a book impact evaluation system. Finally, the reliability of the evaluation system was verified by comparing with the results of expert evaluation, detailed and diversified evaluation results were then obtained. The experimental results reveal that differential evaluation resources can measure the books' impacts from different dimensions, and the integration of multiple evaluation data can assess books more comprehensively. Meanwhile, the book impact evaluation system can provide personalized evaluation results according to the users' evaluation purposes. In addition, the disciplinary differences should be considered for assessing books' impacts.

* Journal of Informetrics, 2021. 15(3): 101162 

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Multi-Level Graph Encoding with Structural-Collaborative Relation Learning for Skeleton-Based Person Re-Identification

Jun 06, 2021
Haocong Rao, Shihao Xu, Xiping Hu, Jun Cheng, Bin Hu

Skeleton-based person re-identification (Re-ID) is an emerging open topic providing great value for safety-critical applications. Existing methods typically extract hand-crafted features or model skeleton dynamics from the trajectory of body joints, while they rarely explore valuable relation information contained in body structure or motion. To fully explore body relations, we construct graphs to model human skeletons from different levels, and for the first time propose a Multi-level Graph encoding approach with Structural-Collaborative Relation learning (MG-SCR) to encode discriminative graph features for person Re-ID. Specifically, considering that structurally-connected body components are highly correlated in a skeleton, we first propose a multi-head structural relation layer to learn different relations of neighbor body-component nodes in graphs, which helps aggregate key correlative features for effective node representations. Second, inspired by the fact that body-component collaboration in walking usually carries recognizable patterns, we propose a cross-level collaborative relation layer to infer collaboration between different level components, so as to capture more discriminative skeleton graph features. Finally, to enhance graph dynamics encoding, we propose a novel self-supervised sparse sequential prediction task for model pre-training, which facilitates encoding high-level graph semantics for person Re-ID. MG-SCR outperforms state-of-the-art skeleton-based methods, and it achieves superior performance to many multi-modal methods that utilize extra RGB or depth features. Our codes are available at

* In IJCAI, 2021 
* Accepted at IJCAI 2021 Main Track. Sole copyright holder is IJCAI. Codes are available at 

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Informational Space of Meaning for Scientific Texts

Apr 28, 2020
Neslihan Suzen, Evgeny M. Mirkes, Alexander N. Gorban

In Natural Language Processing, automatic extracting the meaning of texts constitutes an important problem. Our focus is the computational analysis of meaning of short scientific texts (abstracts or brief reports). In this paper, a vector space model is developed for quantifying the meaning of words and texts. We introduce the Meaning Space, in which the meaning of a word is represented by a vector of Relative Information Gain (RIG) about the subject categories that the text belongs to, which can be obtained from observing the word in the text. This new approach is applied to construct the Meaning Space based on Leicester Scientific Corpus (LSC) and Leicester Scientific Dictionary-Core (LScDC). The LSC is a scientific corpus of 1,673,350 abstracts and the LScDC is a scientific dictionary which words are extracted from the LSC. Each text in the LSC belongs to at least one of 252 subject categories of Web of Science (WoS). These categories are used in construction of vectors of information gains. The Meaning Space is described and statistically analysed for the LSC with the LScDC. The usefulness of the proposed representation model is evaluated through top-ranked words in each category. The most informative n words are ordered. We demonstrated that RIG-based word ranking is much more useful than ranking based on raw word frequency in determining the science-specific meaning and importance of a word. The proposed model based on RIG is shown to have ability to stand out topic-specific words in categories. The most informative words are presented for 252 categories. The new scientific dictionary and the 103,998 x 252 Word-Category RIG Matrix are available online. Analysis of the Meaning Space provides us with a tool to further explore quantifying the meaning of a text using more complex and context-dependent meaning models that use co-occurrence of words and their combinations.

* 320 pages 

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Neighborhood Information-based Probabilistic Algorithm for Network Disintegration

Mar 08, 2020
Qian Li, San-Yang Liu, Xin-She Yang

Many real-world applications can be modelled as complex networks, and such networks include the Internet, epidemic disease networks, transport networks, power grids, protein-folding structures and others. Network integrity and robustness are important to ensure that crucial networks are protected and undesired harmful networks can be dismantled. Network structure and integrity can be controlled by a set of key nodes, and to find the optimal combination of nodes in a network to ensure network structure and integrity can be an NP-complete problem. Despite extensive studies, existing methods have many limitations and there are still many unresolved problems. This paper presents a probabilistic approach based on neighborhood information and node importance, namely, neighborhood information-based probabilistic algorithm (NIPA). We also define a new centrality-based importance measure (IM), which combines the contribution ratios of the neighbor nodes of each target node and two-hop node information. Our proposed NIPA has been tested for different network benchmarks and compared with three other methods: optimal attack strategy (OAS), high betweenness first (HBF) and high degree first (HDF). Experiments suggest that the proposed NIPA is most effective among all four methods. In general, NIPA can identify the most crucial node combination with higher effectiveness, and the set of optimal key nodes found by our proposed NIPA is much smaller than that by heuristic centrality prediction. In addition, many previously neglected weakly connected nodes are identified, which become a crucial part of the newly identified optimal nodes. Thus, revised strategies for protection are recommended to ensure the safeguard of network integrity. Further key issues and future research topics are also discussed.

* Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 139, (2020), Article 112853 
* 25 pages, 13 figures, 2 tables 

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Bias-aware model selection for machine learning of doubly robust functionals

Nov 05, 2019
Yifan Cui, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen

While model selection is a well-studied topic in parametric and nonparametric regression or density estimation, model selection of possibly high dimensional nuisance parameters in semiparametric problems is far less developed. In this paper, we propose a new model selection framework for making inferences about a finite dimensional functional defined on a semiparametric model, when the latter admits a doubly robust estimating function. The class of such doubly robust functionals is quite large, including many missing data and causal inference problems. Under double robustness, the estimated functional should incur no bias if either of two nuisance parameters is evaluated at the truth while the other spans a large collection of candidate models. We introduce two model selection criteria for bias reduction of functional of interest, each based on a novel definition of pseudo-risk for the functional that embodies this double robustness property and thus may be used to select the candidate model that is nearest to fulfilling this property even when all models are wrong. Both selection criteria have a bias awareness property that selection of one nuisance parameter can be made to compensate for excessive bias due to poor learning of the other nuisance parameter. We establish an oracle property for a multi-fold cross-validation version of the new model selection criteria which states that our empirical criteria perform nearly as well as an oracle with a priori knowledge of the pseudo-risk for each candidate model. We also describe a smooth approximation to the selection criteria which allows for valid post-selection inference. Finally, we perform model selection of a semiparametric estimator of average treatment effect given an ensemble of candidate machine learning methods to account for confounding in a study of right heart catheterization in the ICU of critically ill patients.

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