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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Modeling Engagement Dynamics of Online Discussions using Relativistic Gravitational Theory

Aug 10, 2019
Subhabrata Dutta, Dipankar Das, Tanmoy Chakraborty

Online discussions are valuable resources to study user behaviour on a diverse set of topics. Unlike previous studies which model a discussion in a static manner, in the present study, we model it as a time-varying process and solve two inter-related problems -- predict which user groups will get engaged with an ongoing discussion, and forecast the growth rate of a discussion in terms of the number of comments. We propose RGNet (Relativistic Gravitational Nerwork), a novel algorithm that uses Einstein Field Equations of gravity to model online discussions as `cloud of dust' hovering over a user spacetime manifold, attracting users of different groups at different rates over time. We also propose GUVec, a global user embedding method for an online discussion, which is used by RGNet to predict temporal user engagement. RGNet leverages different textual and network-based features to learn the dust distribution for discussions. We employ four baselines -- first two using LSTM architecture, third one using Newtonian model of gravity, and fourth one using a logistic regression adopted from a previous work on engagement prediction. Experiments on Reddit dataset show that RGNet achieves 0.72 Micro F1 score and 6.01% average error for temporal engagement prediction of user groups and growth rate forecasting, respectively, outperforming all the baselines significantly. We further employ RGNet to predict non-temporal engagement -- whether users will comment to a given post or not. RGNet achieves 0.62 AUC for this task, outperforming existing baseline by 8.77% AUC.

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Mammalian Value Systems

Jan 21, 2019
Gopal P. Sarma, Nick J. Hay

Characterizing human values is a topic deeply interwoven with the sciences, humanities, art, and many other human endeavors. In recent years, a number of thinkers have argued that accelerating trends in computer science, cognitive science, and related disciplines foreshadow the creation of intelligent machines which meet and ultimately surpass the cognitive abilities of human beings, thereby entangling an understanding of human values with future technological development. Contemporary research accomplishments suggest sophisticated AI systems becoming widespread and responsible for managing many aspects of the modern world, from preemptively planning users' travel schedules and logistics, to fully autonomous vehicles, to domestic robots assisting in daily living. The extrapolation of these trends has been most forcefully described in the context of a hypothetical "intelligence explosion," in which the capabilities of an intelligent software agent would rapidly increase due to the presence of feedback loops unavailable to biological organisms. The possibility of superintelligent agents, or simply the widespread deployment of sophisticated, autonomous AI systems, highlights an important theoretical problem: the need to separate the cognitive and rational capacities of an agent from the fundamental goal structure, or value system, which constrains and guides the agent's actions. The "value alignment problem" is to specify a goal structure for autonomous agents compatible with human values. In this brief article, we suggest that recent ideas from affective neuroscience and related disciplines aimed at characterizing neurological and behavioral universals in the mammalian class provide important conceptual foundations relevant to describing human values. We argue that the notion of "mammalian value systems" points to a potential avenue for fundamental research in AI safety and AI ethics.

* Informatica Vol. 41 No. 3 (2017) 
* 12 pages 

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Multi-Label Adversarial Perturbations

Jan 02, 2019
Qingquan Song, Haifeng Jin, Xiao Huang, Xia Hu

Adversarial examples are delicately perturbed inputs, which aim to mislead machine learning models towards incorrect outputs. While most of the existing work focuses on generating adversarial perturbations in multi-class classification problems, many real-world applications fall into the multi-label setting in which one instance could be associated with more than one label. For example, a spammer may generate adversarial spams with malicious advertising while maintaining the other labels such as topic labels unchanged. To analyze the vulnerability and robustness of multi-label learning models, we investigate the generation of multi-label adversarial perturbations. This is a challenging task due to the uncertain number of positive labels associated with one instance, as well as the fact that multiple labels are usually not mutually exclusive with each other. To bridge this gap, in this paper, we propose a general attacking framework targeting on multi-label classification problem and conduct a premier analysis on the perturbations for deep neural networks. Leveraging the ranking relationships among labels, we further design a ranking-based framework to attack multi-label ranking algorithms. We specify the connection between the two proposed frameworks and separately design two specific methods grounded on each of them to generate targeted multi-label perturbations. Experiments on real-world multi-label image classification and ranking problems demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed frameworks and provide insights of the vulnerability of multi-label deep learning models under diverse targeted attacking strategies. Several interesting findings including an unpolished defensive strategy, which could potentially enhance the interpretability and robustness of multi-label deep learning models, are further presented and discussed at the end.

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Material Classification using Neural Networks

Oct 17, 2017
Anca Sticlaru

The recognition and classification of the diversity of materials that exist in the environment around us are a key visual competence that computer vision systems focus on in recent years. Understanding the identification of materials in distinct images involves a deep process that has made usage of the recent progress in neural networks which has brought the potential to train architectures to extract features for this challenging task. This project uses state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) techniques and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers in order to classify materials and analyze the results. Building on various widely used material databases collected, a selection of CNN architectures is evaluated to understand which is the best approach to extract features in order to achieve outstanding results for the task. The results gathered over four material datasets and nine CNNs outline that the best overall performance of a CNN using a linear SVM can achieve up to ~92.5% mean average precision, while applying a new relevant direction in computer vision, transfer learning. By limiting the amount of information extracted from the layer before the last fully connected layer, transfer learning aims at analyzing the contribution of shading information and reflectance to identify which main characteristics decide the material category the image belongs to. In addition to the main topic of my project, the evaluation of the nine different CNN architectures, it is questioned if, by using the transfer learning instead of extracting the information from the last convolutional layer, the total accuracy of the system created improves. The results of the comparison emphasize the fact that the accuracy and performance of the system improve, especially in the datasets which consist of a large number of images.

* 45 pages, BSc thesis 

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Machine learning \& artificial intelligence in the quantum domain

Sep 08, 2017
Vedran Dunjko, Hans J. Briegel

Quantum information technologies, and intelligent learning systems, are both emergent technologies that will likely have a transforming impact on our society. The respective underlying fields of research -- quantum information (QI) versus machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) -- have their own specific challenges, which have hitherto been investigated largely independently. However, in a growing body of recent work, researchers have been probing the question to what extent these fields can learn and benefit from each other. QML explores the interaction between quantum computing and ML, investigating how results and techniques from one field can be used to solve the problems of the other. Recently, we have witnessed breakthroughs in both directions of influence. For instance, quantum computing is finding a vital application in providing speed-ups in ML, critical in our "big data" world. Conversely, ML already permeates cutting-edge technologies, and may become instrumental in advanced quantum technologies. Aside from quantum speed-up in data analysis, or classical ML optimization used in quantum experiments, quantum enhancements have also been demonstrated for interactive learning, highlighting the potential of quantum-enhanced learning agents. Finally, works exploring the use of AI for the very design of quantum experiments, and for performing parts of genuine research autonomously, have reported their first successes. Beyond the topics of mutual enhancement, researchers have also broached the fundamental issue of quantum generalizations of ML/AI concepts. This deals with questions of the very meaning of learning and intelligence in a world that is described by quantum mechanics. In this review, we describe the main ideas, recent developments, and progress in a broad spectrum of research investigating machine learning and artificial intelligence in the quantum domain.

* Review paper. 106 pages. 16 figures 

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Brain Responses During Robot-Error Observation

Aug 16, 2017
Dominik Welke, Joos Behncke, Marina Hader, Robin Tibor Schirrmeister, Andreas Schönau, Boris Eßmann, Oliver Müller, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball

Brain-controlled robots are a promising new type of assistive device for severely impaired persons. Little is however known about how to optimize the interaction of humans and brain-controlled robots. Information about the human's perceived correctness of robot performance might provide a useful teaching signal for adaptive control algorithms and thus help enhancing robot control. Here, we studied whether watching robots perform erroneous vs. correct action elicits differential brain responses that can be decoded from single trials of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and whether brain activity during human-robot interaction is modulated by the robot's visual similarity to a human. To address these topics, we designed two experiments. In experiment I, participants watched a robot arm pour liquid into a cup. The robot performed the action either erroneously or correctly, i.e. it either spilled some liquid or not. In experiment II, participants observed two different types of robots, humanoid and non-humanoid, grabbing a ball. The robots either managed to grab the ball or not. We recorded high-resolution EEG during the observation tasks in both experiments to train a Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern (FBCSP) pipeline on the multivariate EEG signal and decode for the correctness of the observed action, and for the type of the observed robot. Our findings show that it was possible to decode both correctness and robot type for the majority of participants significantly, although often just slightly, above chance level. Our findings suggest that non-invasive recordings of brain responses elicited when observing robots indeed contain decodable information about the correctness of the robot's action and the type of observed robot.

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Dense v.s. Sparse: A Comparative Study of Sampling Analysis in Scene Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

Jul 31, 2015
Jingwen Hu, Gui-Song Xia, Fan Hu, Liangpei Zhang

Scene classification is a key problem in the interpretation of high-resolution remote sensing imagery. Many state-of-the-art methods, e.g. bag-of-visual-words model and its variants, the topic models as well as deep learning-based approaches, share similar procedures: patch sampling, feature description/learning and classification. Patch sampling is the first and a key procedure which has a great influence on the results. In the literature, many different sampling strategies have been used, {e.g. dense sampling, random sampling, keypoint-based sampling and saliency-based sampling, etc. However, it is still not clear which sampling strategy is suitable for the scene classification of high-resolution remote sensing images. In this paper, we comparatively study the effects of different sampling strategies under the scenario of scene classification of high-resolution remote sensing images. We divide the existing sampling methods into two types: dense sampling and sparse sampling, the later of which includes random sampling, keypoint-based sampling and various saliency-based sampling proposed recently. In order to compare their performances, we rely on a standard bag-of-visual-words model to construct our testing scheme, owing to their simplicity, robustness and efficiency. The experimental results on two commonly used datasets show that dense sampling has the best performance among all the strategies but with high spatial and computational complexity, random sampling gives better or comparable results than other sparse sampling methods, like the sophisticated multi-scale key-point operators and the saliency-based methods which are intensively studied and commonly used recently.

* This paper has been withdrawn by the author due to the submission requirement of a journal 

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The thermodynamic cost of fast thought

Jan 26, 2013
Alexandre de Castro

After more than sixty years, Shannon's research [1-3] continues to raise fundamental questions, such as the one formulated by Luce [4,5], which is still unanswered: "Why is information theory not very applicable to psychological problems, despite apparent similarities of concepts?" On this topic, Pinker [6], one of the foremost defenders of the computational theory of mind [6], has argued that thought is simply a type of computation, and that the gap between human cognition and computational models may be illusory. In this context, in his latest book, titled Thinking Fast and Slow [8], Kahneman [7,8] provides further theoretical interpretation by differentiating the two assumed systems of the cognitive functioning of the human mind. He calls them intuition (system 1) determined to be an associative (automatic, fast and perceptual) machine, and reasoning (system 2) required to be voluntary and to operate logical- deductively. In this paper, we propose an ansatz inspired by Ausubel's learning theory for investigating, from the constructivist perspective [9-12], information processing in the working memory of cognizers. Specifically, a thought experiment is performed utilizing the mind of a dual-natured creature known as Maxwell's demon: a tiny "man-machine" solely equipped with the characteristics of system 1, which prevents it from reasoning. The calculation presented here shows that [...]. This result indicates that when the system 2 is shut down, both an intelligent being, as well as a binary machine, incur the same energy cost per unit of information processed, which mathematically proves the computational attribute of the system 1, as Kahneman [7,8] theorized. This finding links information theory to human psychological features and opens a new path toward the conception of a multi-bit reasoning machine.

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To what extent should we trust AI models when they extrapolate?

Jan 27, 2022
Roozbeh Yousefzadeh, Xuenan Cao

Many applications affecting human lives rely on models that have come to be known under the umbrella of machine learning and artificial intelligence. These AI models are usually complicated mathematical functions that map from an input space to an output space. Stakeholders are interested to know the rationales behind models' decisions and functional behavior. We study this functional behavior in relation to the data used to create the models. On this topic, scholars have often assumed that models do not extrapolate, i.e., they learn from their training samples and process new input by interpolation. This assumption is questionable: we show that models extrapolate frequently; the extent of extrapolation varies and can be socially consequential. We demonstrate that extrapolation happens for a substantial portion of datasets more than one would consider reasonable. How can we trust models if we do not know whether they are extrapolating? Given a model trained to recommend clinical procedures for patients, can we trust the recommendation when the model considers a patient older or younger than all the samples in the training set? If the training set is mostly Whites, to what extent can we trust its recommendations about Black and Hispanic patients? Which dimension (race, gender, or age) does extrapolation happen? Even if a model is trained on people of all races, it still may extrapolate in significant ways related to race. The leading question is, to what extent can we trust AI models when they process inputs that fall outside their training set? This paper investigates several social applications of AI, showing how models extrapolate without notice. We also look at different sub-spaces of extrapolation for specific individuals subject to AI models and report how these extrapolations can be interpreted, not mathematically, but from a humanistic point of view.

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