Recommender systems, a pivotal tool to alleviate the information overload problem, aim to predict user's preferred items from millions of candidates by analyzing observed user-item relations. As for tackling the sparsity and cold start problems encountered by recommender systems, uncovering hidden (indirect) user-item relations by employing side information and knowledge to enrich observed information for the recommendation has been proven promising recently; and its performance is largely determined by the scalability of recommendation models in the face of the high complexity and large scale of side information and knowledge. Making great strides towards efficiently utilizing complex and large-scale data, research into graph embedding techniques is a major topic. Equipping recommender systems with graph embedding techniques contributes to outperforming the conventional recommendation implementing directly based on graph topology analysis and has been widely studied these years. This article systematically retrospects graph embedding-based recommendation from embedding techniques for bipartite graphs, general graphs, and knowledge graphs, and proposes a general design pipeline of that. In addition, comparing several representative graph embedding-based recommendation models with the most common-used conventional recommendation models, on simulations, manifests that the conventional models overall outperform the graph embedding-based ones in predicting implicit user-item interactions, revealing the relative weakness of graph embedding-based recommendation in these tasks. To foster future research, this article proposes constructive suggestions on making a trade-off between graph embedding-based recommendation and the conventional recommendation in different tasks as well as some open questions.
Signal capture stands in the forefront to perceive and understand the environment and thus imaging plays the pivotal role in mobile vision. Recent explosive progresses in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have shown great potential to develop advanced mobile platforms with new imaging devices. Traditional imaging systems based on the "capturing images first and processing afterwards" mechanism cannot meet this unprecedented demand. Differently, Computational Imaging (CI) systems are designed to capture high-dimensional data in an encoded manner to provide more information for mobile vision systems.Thanks to AI, CI can now be used in real systems by integrating deep learning algorithms into the mobile vision platform to achieve the closed loop of intelligent acquisition, processing and decision making, thus leading to the next revolution of mobile vision.Starting from the history of mobile vision using digital cameras, this work first introduces the advances of CI in diverse applications and then conducts a comprehensive review of current research topics combining CI and AI. Motivated by the fact that most existing studies only loosely connect CI and AI (usually using AI to improve the performance of CI and only limited works have deeply connected them), in this work, we propose a framework to deeply integrate CI and AI by using the example of self-driving vehicles with high-speed communication, edge computing and traffic planning. Finally, we outlook the future of CI plus AI by investigating new materials, brain science and new computing techniques to shed light on new directions of mobile vision systems.
Data is published on the web over time in great volumes, but majority of the data is unstructured, making it hard to understand and difficult to interpret. Information Extraction (IE) methods extract structured information from unstructured data. One of the challenging IE tasks is Event Extraction (EE) which seeks to derive information about specific incidents and their actors from the text. EE is useful in many domains such as building a knowledge base, information retrieval, summarization and online monitoring systems. In the past decades, some event ontologies like ACE, CAMEO and ICEWS were developed to define event forms, actors and dimensions of events observed in the text. These event ontologies still have some shortcomings such as covering only a few topics like political events, having inflexible structure in defining argument roles, lack of analytical dimensions, and complexity in choosing event sub-types. To address these concerns, we propose an event ontology, namely COfEE, that incorporates both expert domain knowledge, previous ontologies and a data-driven approach for identifying events from text. COfEE consists of two hierarchy levels (event types and event sub-types) that include new categories relating to environmental issues, cyberspace, criminal activity and natural disasters which need to be monitored instantly. Also, dynamic roles according to each event sub-type are defined to capture various dimensions of events. In a follow-up experiment, the proposed ontology is evaluated on Wikipedia events, and it is shown to be general and comprehensive. Moreover, in order to facilitate the preparation of gold-standard data for event extraction, a language-independent online tool is presented based on COfEE.
Neural networks are increasingly used in environmental science applications. Furthermore, neural network models are trained by minimizing a loss function, and it is crucial to choose the loss function very carefully for environmental science applications, as it determines what exactly is being optimized. Standard loss functions do not cover all the needs of the environmental sciences, which makes it important for scientists to be able to develop their own custom loss functions so that they can implement many of the classic performance measures already developed in environmental science, including measures developed for spatial model verification. However, there are very few resources available that cover the basics of custom loss function development comprehensively, and to the best of our knowledge none that focus on the needs of environmental scientists. This document seeks to fill this gap by providing a guide on how to write custom loss functions targeted toward environmental science applications. Topics include the basics of writing custom loss functions, common pitfalls, functions to use in loss functions, examples such as fractions skill score as loss function, how to incorporate physical constraints, discrete and soft discretization, and concepts such as focal, robust, and adaptive loss. While examples are currently provided in this guide for Python with Keras and the TensorFlow backend, the basic concepts also apply to other environments, such as Python with PyTorch. Similarly, while the sample loss functions provided here are from meteorology, these are just examples of how to create custom loss functions. Other fields in the environmental sciences have very similar needs for custom loss functions, e.g., for evaluating spatial forecasts effectively, and the concepts discussed here can be applied there as well. All code samples are provided in a GitHub repository.
Data mining project managers can benefit from using standard data mining process models. The benefits of using standard process models for data mining, such as the de facto and the most popular, Cross-Industry-Standard-Process model for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) are reduced cost and time. Also, standard models facilitate knowledge transfer, reuse of best practices, and minimize knowledge requirements. On the other hand, to unlock the potential of ever-growing textual data such as publications, patents, social media data, and documents of various forms, digital innovation is increasingly needed. Furthermore, the introduction of cutting-edge machine learning tools and techniques enable the elicitation of ideas. The processing of unstructured textual data to generate new and useful ideas is referred to as idea mining. Existing literature about idea mining merely overlooks the utilization of standard data mining process models. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to propose a reusable model to generate ideas, CRISP-DM, for Idea Mining (CRISP-IM). The design and development of the CRISP-IM are done following the design science approach. The CRISP-IM facilitates idea generation, through the use of Dynamic Topic Modeling (DTM), unsupervised machine learning, and subsequent statistical analysis on a dataset of scholarly articles. The adapted CRISP-IM can be used to guide the process of identifying trends using scholarly literature datasets or temporally organized patent or any other textual dataset of any domain to elicit ideas. The ex-post evaluation of the CRISP-IM is left for future study.
The creation and the manipulation of facial appearance via deep generative approaches, known as DeepFake, have achieved significant progress and promoted a wide range of benign and malicious applications. The evil side of this new technique poses another popular study, i.e., DeepFake detection aiming to identify the fake faces from the real ones. With the rapid development of the DeepFake-related studies in the community, both sides (i.e., DeepFake generation and detection) have formed the relationship of the battleground, pushing the improvements of each other and inspiring new directions, e.g., the evasion of DeepFake detection. Nevertheless, the overview of such battleground and the new direction is unclear and neglected by recent surveys due to the rapid increase of related publications, limiting the in-depth understanding of the tendency and future works. To fill this gap, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview and detailed analysis of the research work on the topic of DeepFake generation, DeepFake detection as well as evasion of DeepFake detection, with more than 191 research papers carefully surveyed. We present the taxonomy of various DeepFake generation methods and the categorization of various DeepFake detection methods, and more importantly, we showcase the battleground between the two parties with detailed interactions between the adversaries (DeepFake generation) and the defenders (DeepFake detection). The battleground allows fresh perspective into the latest landscape of the DeepFake research and can provide valuable analysis towards the research challenges and opportunities as well as research trends and directions in the field of DeepFake generation and detection. We also elaborately design interactive diagrams (http://www.xujuefei.com/dfsurvey) to allow researchers to explore their own interests on popular DeepFake generators or detectors.
Event-based cameras are bio-inspired vision sensors whose pixels work independently from each other and respond asynchronously to brightness changes, with microsecond resolution. Their advantages make it possible to tackle challenging scenarios in robotics, such as high-speed and high dynamic range scenes. We present a solution to the problem of visual odometry from the data acquired by a stereo event-based camera rig. Our system follows a parallel tracking-and-mapping approach, where novel solutions to each subproblem (3D reconstruction and camera pose estimation) are developed with two objectives in mind: being principled and efficient, for real-time operation with commodity hardware. To this end, we seek to maximize the spatio-temporal consistency of stereo event-based data while using a simple and efficient representation. Specifically, the mapping module builds a semi-dense 3D map of the scene by fusing depth estimates from multiple local viewpoints (obtained by spatio-temporal consistency) in a probabilistic fashion. The tracking module recovers the pose of the stereo rig by solving a registration problem that naturally arises due to the chosen map and event data representation. Experiments on publicly available datasets and on our own recordings demonstrate the versatility of the proposed method in natural scenes with general 6-DoF motion. The system successfully leverages the advantages of event-based cameras to perform visual odometry in challenging illumination conditions, such as low-light and high dynamic range, while running in real-time on a standard CPU. We release the software and dataset under an open source licence to foster research in the emerging topic of event-based SLAM.
News creation and consumption has been changing since the advent of social media. An estimated 2.95 billion people in 2019 used social media worldwide. The widespread of the Coronavirus COVID-19 resulted with a tsunami of social media. Most platforms were used to transmit relevant news, guidelines and precautions to people. According to WHO, uncontrolled conspiracy theories and propaganda are spreading faster than the COVID-19 pandemic itself, creating an infodemic and thus causing psychological panic, misleading medical advises, and economic disruption. Accordingly, discussions have been initiated with the objective of moderating all COVID-19 communications, except those initiated from trusted sources such as the WHO and authorized governmental entities. This paper presents a large-scale study based on data mined from Twitter. Extensive analysis has been performed on approximately one million COVID-19 related tweets collected over a period of two months. Furthermore, the profiles of 288,000 users were analyzed including unique users profiles, meta-data and tweets context. The study noted various interesting conclusions including the critical impact of the (1) exploitation of the COVID-19 crisis to redirect readers to irrelevant topics and (2) widespread of unauthentic medical precautions and information. Further data analysis revealed the importance of using social networks in a global pandemic crisis by relying on credible users with variety of occupations, content developers and influencers in specific fields. In this context, several insights and findings have been provided while elaborating computing and non-computing implications and research directions for potential solutions and social networks management strategies during crisis periods.
All metaheuristic optimization algorithms require some initialization, and the initialization for such optimizers is usually carried out randomly. However, initialization can have some significant influence on the performance of such algorithms. This paper presents a systematic comparison of 22 different initialization methods on the convergence and accuracy of five optimizers: differential evolution (DE), particle swarm optimization (PSO), cuckoo search (CS), artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA). We have used 19 different test functions with different properties and modalities to compare the possible effects of initialization, population sizes and the numbers of iterations. Rigorous statistical ranking tests indicate that 43.37\% of the functions using the DE algorithm show significant differences for different initialization methods, while 73.68\% of the functions using both PSO and CS algorithms are significantly affected by different initialization methods. The simulations show that DE is less sensitive to initialization, while both PSO and CS are more sensitive to initialization. In addition, under the condition of the same maximum number of function evaluations (FEs), the population size can also have a strong effect. Particle swarm optimization usually requires a larger population, while the cuckoo search needs only a small population size. Differential evolution depends more heavily on the number of iterations, a relatively small population with more iterations can lead to better results. Furthermore, ABC is more sensitive to initialization, while such initialization has little effect on GA. Some probability distributions such as the beta distribution, exponential distribution and Rayleigh distribution can usually lead to better performance. The implications of this study and further research topics are also discussed in detail.