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Biometric Quality: Review and Application to Face Recognition with FaceQnet

Jun 18, 2020
Javier Hernandez-Ortega, Javier Galbally, Julian Fierrez, Laurent Beslay

"The output of a computerised system can only be as accurate as the information entered into it." This rather trivial statement is the basis behind one of the driving concepts in biometric recognition: biometric quality. Quality is nowadays widely regarded as the number one factor responsible for the good or bad performance of automated biometric systems. It refers to the ability of a biometric sample to be used for recognition purposes and produce consistent, accurate, and reliable results. Such a subjective term is objectively estimated by the so-called biometric quality metrics. These algorithms play nowadays a pivotal role in the correct functioning of systems, providing feedback to the users and working as invaluable audit tools. In spite of their unanimously accepted relevance, some of the most used and deployed biometric characteristics are lacking behind in the development of these methods. This is the case of face recognition. After a gentle introduction to the general topic of biometric quality and a review of past efforts in face quality metrics, in the present work, we address the need for better face quality metrics by developing FaceQnet. FaceQnet is a novel opensource face quality assessment tool, inspired and powered by deep learning technology, which assigns a scalar quality measure to facial images, as prediction of their recognition accuracy. Two versions of FaceQnet have been thoroughly evaluated both in this work and also independently by NIST, showing the soundness of the approach and its competitiveness with respect to current state-of-the-art metrics. Even though our work is presented here particularly in the framework of face biometrics, the proposed methodology for building a fully automated quality metric can be very useful and easily adapted to other artificial intelligence tasks.


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MODMA dataset: a Multi-modal Open Dataset for Mental-disorder Analysis

Mar 05, 2020
Hanshu Cai, Yiwen Gao, Shuting Sun, Na Li, Fuze Tian, Han Xiao, Jianxiu Li, Zhengwu Yang, Xiaowei Li, Qinglin Zhao, Zhenyu Liu, Zhijun Yao, Minqiang Yang, Hong Peng, Jing Zhu, Xiaowei Zhang, Guoping Gao, Fang Zheng, Rui Li, Zhihua Guo, Rong Ma, Jing Yang, Lan Zhang, Xiping Hu, Yumin Li, Bin Hu

According to the World Health Organization, the number of mental disorder patients, especially depression patients, has grown rapidly and become a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. However, the present common practice of depression diagnosis is based on interviews and clinical scales carried out by doctors, which is not only labor-consuming but also time-consuming. One important reason is due to the lack of physiological indicators for mental disorders. With the rising of tools such as data mining and artificial intelligence, using physiological data to explore new possible physiological indicators of mental disorder and creating new applications for mental disorder diagnosis has become a new research hot topic. However, good quality physiological data for mental disorder patients are hard to acquire. We present a multi-modal open dataset for mental-disorder analysis. The dataset includes EEG and audio data from clinically depressed patients and matching normal controls. All our patients were carefully diagnosed and selected by professional psychiatrists in hospitals. The EEG dataset includes not only data collected using traditional 128-electrodes mounted elastic cap, but also a novel wearable 3-electrode EEG collector for pervasive applications. The 128-electrodes EEG signals of 53 subjects were recorded as both in resting state and under stimulation; the 3-electrode EEG signals of 55 subjects were recorded in resting state; the audio data of 52 subjects were recorded during interviewing, reading, and picture description. We encourage other researchers in the field to use it for testing their methods of mental-disorder analysis.


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MODMA dataset: a Multi-model Open Dataset for Mental-disorder Analysis

Feb 20, 2020
Hanshu Cai, Yiwen Gao, Shuting Sun, Na Li, Fuze Tian, Han Xiao, Jianxiu Li, Zhengwu Yang, Xiaowei Li, Qinglin Zhao, Zhenyu Liu, Zhijun Yao, Minqiang Yang, Hong Peng, Jing Zhu, Xiaowei Zhang, Xiping Hu, Bin Hu

According to the World Health Organization, the number of mental disorder patients, especially depression patients, has grown rapidly and become a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. However, the present common practice of depression diagnosis is based on interviews and clinical scales carried out by doctors, which is not only labor-consuming but also time-consuming. One important reason is due to the lack of physiological indicators for mental disorders. With the rising of tools such as data mining and artificial intelligence, using physiological data to explore new possible physiological indicators of mental disorder and creating new applications for mental disorder diagnosis has become a new research hot topic. However, good quality physiological data for mental disorder patients are hard to acquire. We present a multi-model open dataset for mental-disorder analysis. The dataset includes EEG and audio data from clinically depressed patients and matching normal controls. All our patients were carefully diagnosed and selected by professional psychiatrists in hospitals. The EEG dataset includes not only data collected using traditional 128-electrodes mounted elastic cap, but also a novel wearable 3-electrode EEG collector for pervasive applications. The 128-electrodes EEG signals of 53 subjects were recorded as both in resting state and under stimulation; the 3-electrode EEG signals of 55 subjects were recorded in resting state; the audio data of 52 subjects were recorded during interviewing, reading, and picture description. We encourage other researchers in the field to use it for testing their methods of mental-disorder analysis.


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Evidence of distrust and disorientation towards immunization on online social media after contrasting political communication on vaccines. Results from an analysis of Twitter data in Italy

Feb 18, 2020
Samantha Ajovalasit, Veronica Dorgali, Angelo Mazza, Alberto d' Onofrio, Piero Manfredi

Background. Recently, In Italy the vaccination coverage for key immunizations, as MMR, has been declining, with measles outbreaks. In 2017, the Italian Government expanded the number of mandatory immunizations establishing penalties for families of unvaccinated children. During the 2018 elections campaign, immunization policy entered the political debate, with the government accusing oppositions of fuelling vaccine scepticism. A new government established in 2018 temporarily relaxed penalties and announced the introduction of flexibility. Objectives and Methods. By a sentiment analysis on tweets posted in Italian during 2018, we aimed at (i) characterising the temporal flow of communication on vaccines, (ii) evaluating the usefulness of Twitter data for estimating vaccination parameters, and (iii) investigating whether the ambiguous political communication might have originated disorientation among the public. Results. The population appeared to be mostly composed by "serial twitterers" tweeting about everything including vaccines. Tweets favourable to vaccination accounted for 75% of retained tweets, undecided for 14% and unfavourable for 11%. Twitter activity of the Italian public health institutions was negligible. After smoothing the temporal pattern, an up-and-down trend in the favourable proportion emerged, synchronized with the switch between governments, providing clear evidence of disorientation. Conclusion. The reported evidence of disorientation documents that critical health topics, as immunization, should never be used for political consensus. This is especially true given the increasing role of online social media as information source, which might yield to social pressures eventually harmful for vaccine uptake, and is worsened by the lack of institutional presence on Twitter. This calls for efforts to contrast misinformation and the ensuing spread of hesitancy.

* 15 pages, 3 of appendix, 3 figures, 2 tables 

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DerainCycleGAN: An Attention-guided Unsupervised Benchmark for Single Image Deraining and Rainmaking

Jan 15, 2020
Yanyan Wei, Zhao Zhang, Jicong Fan, Yang Wang, Shuicheng Yan, Meng Wang

Single image deraining (SID) is an important and challenging topic in emerging vision applications, and most of emerged deraining methods are supervised relying on the ground truth (i.e., paired images) in recent years. However, in practice it is rather common to have no un-paired images in real deraining task, in such cases how to remove the rain streaks in an unsupervised way will be a very challenging task due to lack of constraints between images and hence suffering from low-quality recovery results. In this paper, we explore the unsupervised SID task using unpaired data and propose a novel net called Attention-guided Deraining by Constrained CycleGAN (or shortly, DerainCycleGAN), which can fully utilize the constrained transfer learning abilitiy and circulatory structure of CycleGAN. Specifically, we design an unsu-pervised attention guided rain streak extractor (U-ARSE) that utilizes a memory to extract the rain streak masks with two constrained cycle-consistency branches jointly by paying attention to both the rainy and rain-free image domains. As a by-product, we also contribute a new paired rain image dataset called Rain200A, which is constructed by our network automatically. Compared with existing synthesis datasets, the rainy streaks in Rain200A contains more obvious and diverse shapes and directions. As a result, existing supervised methods trained on Rain200A can perform much better for processing real rainy images. Extensive experiments on synthesis and real datasets show that our net is superior to existing unsupervised deraining networks, and is also very competitive to other related supervised networks.


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