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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Multimodal Machine Learning in Precision Health

Apr 10, 2022
Adrienne Kline, Hanyin Wang, Yikuan Li, Saya Dennis, Meghan Hutch, Zhenxing Xu, Fei Wang, Feixiong Cheng, Yuan Luo

As machine learning and artificial intelligence are more frequently being leveraged to tackle problems in the health sector, there has been increased interest in utilizing them in clinical decision-support. This has historically been the case in single modal data such as electronic health record data. Attempts to improve prediction and resemble the multimodal nature of clinical expert decision-making this has been met in the computational field of machine learning by a fusion of disparate data. This review was conducted to summarize this field and identify topics ripe for future research. We conducted this review in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) extension for Scoping Reviews to characterize multi-modal data fusion in health. We used a combination of content analysis and literature searches to establish search strings and databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, and IEEEXplore from 2011 to 2021. A final set of 125 articles were included in the analysis. The most common health areas utilizing multi-modal methods were neurology and oncology. However, there exist a wide breadth of current applications. The most common form of information fusion was early fusion. Notably, there was an improvement in predictive performance performing heterogeneous data fusion. Lacking from the papers were clear clinical deployment strategies and pursuit of FDA-approved tools. These findings provide a map of the current literature on multimodal data fusion as applied to health diagnosis/prognosis problems. Multi-modal machine learning, while more robust in its estimations over unimodal methods, has drawbacks in its scalability and the time-consuming nature of information concatenation.

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Adjacent Context Coordination Network for Salient Object Detection in Optical Remote Sensing Images

Mar 25, 2022
Gongyang Li, Zhi Liu, Dan Zeng, Weisi Lin, Haibin Ling

Salient object detection (SOD) in optical remote sensing images (RSIs), or RSI-SOD, is an emerging topic in understanding optical RSIs. However, due to the difference between optical RSIs and natural scene images (NSIs), directly applying NSI-SOD methods to optical RSIs fails to achieve satisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a novel Adjacent Context Coordination Network (ACCoNet) to explore the coordination of adjacent features in an encoder-decoder architecture for RSI-SOD. Specifically, ACCoNet consists of three parts: an encoder, Adjacent Context Coordination Modules (ACCoMs), and a decoder. As the key component of ACCoNet, ACCoM activates the salient regions of output features of the encoder and transmits them to the decoder. ACCoM contains a local branch and two adjacent branches to coordinate the multi-level features simultaneously. The local branch highlights the salient regions in an adaptive way, while the adjacent branches introduce global information of adjacent levels to enhance salient regions. Additionally, to extend the capabilities of the classic decoder block (i.e., several cascaded convolutional layers), we extend it with two bifurcations and propose a Bifurcation-Aggregation Block to capture the contextual information in the decoder. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed ACCoNet outperforms 22 state-of-the-art methods under nine evaluation metrics, and runs up to 81 fps on a single NVIDIA Titan X GPU. The code and results of our method are available at

* 13 pages, 7 figures, Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics 2022 

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Evaluating Generalization in Classical and Quantum Generative Models

Jan 21, 2022
Kaitlin Gili, Marta Mauri, Alejandro Perdomo-Ortiz

Defining and accurately measuring generalization in generative models remains an ongoing challenge and a topic of active research within the machine learning community. This is in contrast to discriminative models, where there is a clear definition of generalization, i.e., the model's classification accuracy when faced with unseen data. In this work, we construct a simple and unambiguous approach to evaluate the generalization capabilities of generative models. Using the sample-based generalization metrics proposed here, any generative model, from state-of-the-art classical generative models such as GANs to quantum models such as Quantum Circuit Born Machines, can be evaluated on the same ground on a concrete well-defined framework. In contrast to other sample-based metrics for probing generalization, we leverage constrained optimization problems (e.g., cardinality constrained problems) and use these discrete datasets to define specific metrics capable of unambiguously measuring the quality of the samples and the model's generalization capabilities for generating data beyond the training set but still within the valid solution space. Additionally, our metrics can diagnose trainability issues such as mode collapse and overfitting, as we illustrate when comparing GANs to quantum-inspired models built out of tensor networks. Our simulation results show that our quantum-inspired models have up to a $68 \times$ enhancement in generating unseen unique and valid samples compared to GANs, and a ratio of 61:2 for generating samples with better quality than those observed in the training set. We foresee these metrics as valuable tools for rigorously defining practical quantum advantage in the domain of generative modeling.

* 24 pages, 14 figures 

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Diagnosing BERT with Retrieval Heuristics

Jan 12, 2022
Arthur Câmara, Claudia Hauff

Word embeddings, made widely popular in 2013 with the release of word2vec, have become a mainstay of NLP engineering pipelines. Recently, with the release of BERT, word embeddings have moved from the term-based embedding space to the contextual embedding space -- each term is no longer represented by a single low-dimensional vector but instead each term and \emph{its context} determine the vector weights. BERT's setup and architecture have been shown to be general enough to be applicable to many natural language tasks. Importantly for Information Retrieval (IR), in contrast to prior deep learning solutions to IR problems which required significant tuning of neural net architectures and training regimes, "vanilla BERT" has been shown to outperform existing retrieval algorithms by a wide margin, including on tasks and corpora that have long resisted retrieval effectiveness gains over traditional IR baselines (such as Robust04). In this paper, we employ the recently proposed axiomatic dataset analysis technique -- that is, we create diagnostic datasets that each fulfil a retrieval heuristic (both term matching and semantic-based) -- to explore what BERT is able to learn. In contrast to our expectations, we find BERT, when applied to a recently released large-scale web corpus with ad-hoc topics, to \emph{not} adhere to any of the explored axioms. At the same time, BERT outperforms the traditional query likelihood retrieval model by 40\%. This means that the axiomatic approach to IR (and its extension of diagnostic datasets created for retrieval heuristics) may in its current form not be applicable to large-scale corpora. Additional -- different -- axioms are needed.

* C\^amara A, Hauff C. Diagnosing BERT with Retrieval Heuristics. Advances in Information Retrieval. 2020;12035:605-618. Published 2020 Mar 17. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-45439-5_40 
* Published at ECIR 2020 

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Realistic galaxy image simulation via score-based generative models

Nov 02, 2021
Michael J. Smith, James E. Geach, Ryan A. Jackson, Nikhil Arora, Connor Stone, Stéphane Courteau

We show that a Denoising Diffusion Probabalistic Model (DDPM), a class of score-based generative model, can be used to produce realistic yet fake images that mimic observations of galaxies. Our method is tested with Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument grz imaging of galaxies from the Photometry and Rotation curve OBservations from Extragalactic Surveys (PROBES) sample and galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Subjectively, the generated galaxies are highly realistic when compared with samples from the real dataset. We quantify the similarity by borrowing from the deep generative learning literature, using the `Fr\'echet Inception Distance' to test for subjective and morphological similarity. We also introduce the `Synthetic Galaxy Distance' metric to compare the emergent physical properties (such as total magnitude, colour and half light radius) of a ground truth parent and synthesised child dataset. We argue that the DDPM approach produces sharper and more realistic images than other generative methods such as Adversarial Networks (with the downside of more costly inference), and could be used to produce large samples of synthetic observations tailored to a specific imaging survey. We demonstrate two potential uses of the DDPM: (1) accurate in-painting of occluded data, such as satellite trails, and (2) domain transfer, where new input images can be processed to mimic the properties of the DDPM training set. Here we `DESI-fy' cartoon images as a proof of concept for domain transfer. Finally, we suggest potential applications for score-based approaches that could motivate further research on this topic within the astronomical community.

* 10 pages, 8 figures. Code: . Follow the Twitter bot @ThisIsNotAnApod for DDPM-generated APODs 

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Federated Learning for Big Data: A Survey on Opportunities, Applications, and Future Directions

Oct 17, 2021
Thippa Reddy Gadekallu, Quoc-Viet Pham, Thien Huynh-The, Sweta Bhattacharya, Praveen Kumar Reddy Maddikunta, Madhusanka Liyanage

Big data has remarkably evolved over the last few years to realize an enormous volume of data generated from newly emerging services and applications and a massive number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The potential of big data can be realized via analytic and learning techniques, in which the data from various sources is transferred to a central cloud for central storage, processing, and training. However, this conventional approach faces critical issues in terms of data privacy as the data may include sensitive data such as personal information, governments, banking accounts. To overcome this challenge, federated learning (FL) appeared to be a promising learning technique. However, a gap exists in the literature that a comprehensive survey on FL for big data services and applications is yet to be conducted. In this article, we present a survey on the use of FL for big data services and applications, aiming to provide general readers with an overview of FL, big data, and the motivations behind the use of FL for big data. In particular, we extensively review the use of FL for key big data services, including big data acquisition, big data storage, big data analytics, and big data privacy preservation. Subsequently, we review the potential of FL for big data applications, such as smart city, smart healthcare, smart transportation, smart grid, and social media. Further, we summarize a number of important projects on FL-big data and discuss key challenges of this interesting topic along with several promising solutions and directions.

* Submitted for peer review in a journal 

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An Experimental Review on Deep Learning Architectures for Time Series Forecasting

Apr 08, 2021
Pedro Lara-Benítez, Manuel Carranza-García, José C. Riquelme

In recent years, deep learning techniques have outperformed traditional models in many machine learning tasks. Deep neural networks have successfully been applied to address time series forecasting problems, which is a very important topic in data mining. They have proved to be an effective solution given their capacity to automatically learn the temporal dependencies present in time series. However, selecting the most convenient type of deep neural network and its parametrization is a complex task that requires considerable expertise. Therefore, there is a need for deeper studies on the suitability of all existing architectures for different forecasting tasks. In this work, we face two main challenges: a comprehensive review of the latest works using deep learning for time series forecasting; and an experimental study comparing the performance of the most popular architectures. The comparison involves a thorough analysis of seven types of deep learning models in terms of accuracy and efficiency. We evaluate the rankings and distribution of results obtained with the proposed models under many different architecture configurations and training hyperparameters. The datasets used comprise more than 50000 time series divided into 12 different forecasting problems. By training more than 38000 models on these data, we provide the most extensive deep learning study for time series forecasting. Among all studied models, the results show that long short-term memory (LSTM) and convolutional networks (CNN) are the best alternatives, with LSTMs obtaining the most accurate forecasts. CNNs achieve comparable performance with less variability of results under different parameter configurations, while also being more efficient.

* International Journal of Neural Systems, Vol. 31, No. 3 (2021) 2130001 

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A survey of recommender systems for energy efficiency in buildings: Principles, challenges and prospects

Feb 09, 2021
Yassine Himeur, Abdullah Alsalemi, Ayman Al-Kababji, Faycal Bensaali, Abbes Amira, Christos Sardianos, George Dimitrakopoulos, Iraklis Varlamis

Recommender systems have significantly developed in recent years in parallel with the witnessed advancements in both internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. Accordingly, as a consequence of IoT and AI, multiple forms of data are incorporated in these systems, e.g. social, implicit, local and personal information, which can help in improving recommender systems' performance and widen their applicability to traverse different disciplines. On the other side, energy efficiency in the building sector is becoming a hot research topic, in which recommender systems play a major role by promoting energy saving behavior and reducing carbon emissions. However, the deployment of the recommendation frameworks in buildings still needs more investigations to identify the current challenges and issues, where their solutions are the keys to enable the pervasiveness of research findings, and therefore, ensure a large-scale adoption of this technology. Accordingly, this paper presents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first timely and comprehensive reference for energy-efficiency recommendation systems through (i) surveying existing recommender systems for energy saving in buildings; (ii) discussing their evolution; (iii) providing an original taxonomy of these systems based on specified criteria, including the nature of the recommender engine, its objective, computing platforms, evaluation metrics and incentive measures; and (iv) conducting an in-depth, critical analysis to identify their limitations and unsolved issues. The derived challenges and areas of future implementation could effectively guide the energy research community to improve the energy-efficiency in buildings and reduce the cost of developed recommender systems-based solutions.

* Information Fusion 2021 
* 35 pages, 11 figures, 1 table 

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