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"Topic": models, code, and papers

PARM: A Paragraph Aggregation Retrieval Model for Dense Document-to-Document Retrieval

Jan 05, 2022
Sophia Althammer, Sebastian Hofstätter, Mete Sertkan, Suzan Verberne, Allan Hanbury

Dense passage retrieval (DPR) models show great effectiveness gains in first stage retrieval for the web domain. However in the web domain we are in a setting with large amounts of training data and a query-to-passage or a query-to-document retrieval task. We investigate in this paper dense document-to-document retrieval with limited labelled target data for training, in particular legal case retrieval. In order to use DPR models for document-to-document retrieval, we propose a Paragraph Aggregation Retrieval Model (PARM) which liberates DPR models from their limited input length. PARM retrieves documents on the paragraph-level: for each query paragraph, relevant documents are retrieved based on their paragraphs. Then the relevant results per query paragraph are aggregated into one ranked list for the whole query document. For the aggregation we propose vector-based aggregation with reciprocal rank fusion (VRRF) weighting, which combines the advantages of rank-based aggregation and topical aggregation based on the dense embeddings. Experimental results show that VRRF outperforms rank-based aggregation strategies for dense document-to-document retrieval with PARM. We compare PARM to document-level retrieval and demonstrate higher retrieval effectiveness of PARM for lexical and dense first-stage retrieval on two different legal case retrieval collections. We investigate how to train the dense retrieval model for PARM on limited target data with labels on the paragraph or the document-level. In addition, we analyze the differences of the retrieved results of lexical and dense retrieval with PARM.

* Accepted at ECIR 2022 

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Improving Multi-Domain Generalization through Domain Re-labeling

Dec 17, 2021
Kowshik Thopalli, Sameeksha Katoch, Andreas Spanias, Pavan Turaga, Jayaraman J. Thiagarajan

Domain generalization (DG) methods aim to develop models that generalize to settings where the test distribution is different from the training data. In this paper, we focus on the challenging problem of multi-source zero-shot DG, where labeled training data from multiple source domains is available but with no access to data from the target domain. Though this problem has become an important topic of research, surprisingly, the simple solution of pooling all source data together and training a single classifier is highly competitive on standard benchmarks. More importantly, even sophisticated approaches that explicitly optimize for invariance across different domains do not necessarily provide non-trivial gains over ERM. In this paper, for the first time, we study the important link between pre-specified domain labels and the generalization performance. Using a motivating case-study and a new variant of a distributional robust optimization algorithm, GroupDRO++, we first demonstrate how inferring custom domain groups can lead to consistent improvements over the original domain labels that come with the dataset. Subsequently, we introduce a general approach for multi-domain generalization, MulDEns, that uses an ERM-based deep ensembling backbone and performs implicit domain re-labeling through a meta-optimization algorithm. Using empirical studies on multiple standard benchmarks, we show that MulDEns does not require tailoring the augmentation strategy or the training process specific to a dataset, consistently outperforms ERM by significant margins, and produces state-of-the-art generalization performance, even when compared to existing methods that exploit the domain labels.


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Edge-Native Intelligence for 6G Communications Driven by Federated Learning: A Survey of Trends and Challenges

Nov 14, 2021
Mohammad Al-Quraan, Lina Mohjazi, Lina Bariah, Anthony Centeno, Ahmed Zoha, Sami Muhaidat, Mérouane Debbah, Muhammad Ali Imran

The unprecedented surge of data volume in wireless networks empowered with artificial intelligence (AI) opens up new horizons for providing ubiquitous data-driven intelligent services. Traditional cloud-centric machine learning (ML)-based services are implemented by collecting datasets and training models centrally. However, this conventional training technique encompasses two challenges: (i) high communication and energy cost due to increased data communication, (ii) threatened data privacy by allowing untrusted parties to utilise this information. Recently, in light of these limitations, a new emerging technique, coined as federated learning (FL), arose to bring ML to the edge of wireless networks. FL can extract the benefits of data silos by training a global model in a distributed manner, orchestrated by the FL server. FL exploits both decentralised datasets and computing resources of participating clients to develop a generalised ML model without compromising data privacy. In this article, we introduce a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals and enabling technologies of FL. Moreover, an extensive study is presented detailing various applications of FL in wireless networks and highlighting their challenges and limitations. The efficacy of FL is further explored with emerging prospective beyond fifth generation (B5G) and sixth generation (6G) communication systems. The purpose of this survey is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of FL applications in key wireless technologies that will serve as a foundation to establish a firm understanding of the topic. Lastly, we offer a road forward for future research directions.


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Jurassic is (almost) All You Need: Few-Shot Meaning-to-Text Generation for Open-Domain Dialogue

Nov 10, 2021
Lena Reed, Cecilia Li, Angela Ramirez, Liren Wu, Marilyn Walker

One challenge with open-domain dialogue systems is the need to produce truthful, high-quality responses on any topic. We aim to improve the quality and coverage of Athena, an Alexa Prize dialogue system. We experiment with few-shot prompt-based learning, comparing GPT-Neo to Jurassic-1, for the movies, music, TV, sports, and video game domains, both within and cross-domain, with different prompt set sizes (2, 3, 10), formats, and meaning representations consisting of either sets of WikiData KG triples, or dialogue acts. Our evaluation uses BLEURT and human metrics, and shows that with 10-shot prompting, Athena-Jurassic's performance is significantly better for coherence and semantic accuracy. Experiments with 2-shot cross-domain prompts results in a huge performance drop for Athena-GPT-Neo, whose semantic accuracy falls to 0.41, and whose untrue hallucination rate increases to 12%. Experiments with dialogue acts for video games show that with 10-shot prompting, both models learn to control dialogue acts, but Athena-Jurassic has significantly higher coherence, and only 4% untrue hallucinations. Our results suggest that Athena-Jurassic produces high enough quality outputs to be useful in live systems with real users. To our knowledge, these are the first results demonstrating that few-shot semantic prompt-based learning can create NLGs that generalize to new domains, and produce high-quality, semantically-controlled, conversational responses directly from meaning representations.

* The 12th International Workshop on Spoken Dialog System Technology, IWSDS 2021 
* Final Conference Proceedings version 

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Investigating Health-Aware Smart-Nudging with Machine Learning to Help People Pursue Healthier Eating-Habits

Oct 05, 2021
Mansura A Khan, Khalil Muhammad, Barry Smyth, David Coyle

Food-choices and eating-habits directly contribute to our long-term health. This makes the food recommender system a potential tool to address the global crisis of obesity and malnutrition. Over the past decade, artificial-intelligence and medical researchers became more invested in researching tools that can guide and help people make healthy and thoughtful decisions around food and diet. In many typical (Recommender System) RS domains, smart nudges have been proven effective in shaping users' consumption patterns. In recent years, knowledgeable nudging and incentifying choices started getting attention in the food domain as well. To develop smart nudging for promoting healthier food choices, we combined Machine Learning and RS technology with food-healthiness guidelines from recognized health organizations, such as the World Health Organization, Food Standards Agency, and the National Health Service United Kingdom. In this paper, we discuss our research on, persuasive visualization for making users aware of the healthiness of the recommended recipes. Here, we propose three novel nudging technology, the WHO-BubbleSlider, the FSA-ColorCoading, and the DRCI-MLCP, that encourage users to choose healthier recipes. We also propose a Topic Modeling based portion-size recommendation algorithm. To evaluate our proposed smart-nudges, we conducted an online user study with 96 participants and 92250 recipes. Results showed that, during the food decision-making process, appropriate healthiness cues make users more likely to click, browse, and choose healthier recipes over less healthy ones.


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CCS-GAN: COVID-19 CT-scan classification with very few positive training images

Oct 01, 2021
Sumeet Menon, Jayalakshmi Mangalagiri, Josh Galita, Michael Morris, Babak Saboury, Yaacov Yesha, Yelena Yesha, Phuong Nguyen, Aryya Gangopadhyay, David Chapman

We present a novel algorithm that is able to classify COVID-19 pneumonia from CT Scan slices using a very small sample of training images exhibiting COVID-19 pneumonia in tandem with a larger number of normal images. This algorithm is able to achieve high classification accuracy using as few as 10 positive training slices (from 10 positive cases), which to the best of our knowledge is one order of magnitude fewer than the next closest published work at the time of writing. Deep learning with extremely small positive training volumes is a very difficult problem and has been an important topic during the COVID-19 pandemic, because for quite some time it was difficult to obtain large volumes of COVID-19 positive images for training. Algorithms that can learn to screen for diseases using few examples are an important area of research. We present the Cycle Consistent Segmentation Generative Adversarial Network (CCS-GAN). CCS-GAN combines style transfer with pulmonary segmentation and relevant transfer learning from negative images in order to create a larger volume of synthetic positive images for the purposes of improving diagnostic classification performance. The performance of a VGG-19 classifier plus CCS-GAN was trained using a small sample of positive image slices ranging from at most 50 down to as few as 10 COVID-19 positive CT-scan images. CCS-GAN achieves high accuracy with few positive images and thereby greatly reduces the barrier of acquiring large training volumes in order to train a diagnostic classifier for COVID-19.

* 10 pages, 9 figures, 1 table, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 

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Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Symbolic Computation in Software Science

Sep 06, 2021
Temur Kutsia

This volume contains papers presented at the Ninth International Symposium on Symbolic Computation in Software Science, SCSS 2021. Symbolic Computation is the science of computing with symbolic objects (terms, formulae, programs, representations of algebraic objects, etc.). Powerful algorithms have been developed during the past decades for the major subareas of symbolic computation: computer algebra and computational logic. These algorithms and methods are successfully applied in various fields, including software science, which covers a broad range of topics about software construction and analysis. Meanwhile, artificial intelligence methods and machine learning algorithms are widely used nowadays in various domains and, in particular, combined with symbolic computation. Several approaches mix artificial intelligence and symbolic methods and tools deployed over large corpora to create what is known as cognitive systems. Cognitive computing focuses on building systems that interact with humans naturally by reasoning, aiming at learning at scale. The purpose of SCSS is to promote research on theoretical and practical aspects of symbolic computation in software science, combined with modern artificial intelligence techniques. These proceedings contain the keynote paper by Bruno Buchberger and ten contributed papers. Besides, the conference program included three invited talks, nine short and work-in-progress papers, and a special session on computer algebra and computational logic. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the symposium was held completely online. It was organized by the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC) of the Johannes Kepler University Linz on September 8--10, 2021.

* EPTCS 342, 2021 

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MIDV-2020: A Comprehensive Benchmark Dataset for Identity Document Analysis

Jul 01, 2021
Konstantin Bulatov, Ekaterina Emelianova, Daniil Tropin, Natalya Skoryukina, Yulia Chernyshova, Alexander Sheshkus, Sergey Usilin, Zuheng Ming, Jean-Christophe Burie, Muhammad Muzzamil Luqman, Vladimir V. Arlazarov

Identity documents recognition is an important sub-field of document analysis, which deals with tasks of robust document detection, type identification, text fields recognition, as well as identity fraud prevention and document authenticity validation given photos, scans, or video frames of an identity document capture. Significant amount of research has been published on this topic in recent years, however a chief difficulty for such research is scarcity of datasets, due to the subject matter being protected by security requirements. A few datasets of identity documents which are available lack diversity of document types, capturing conditions, or variability of document field values. In addition, the published datasets were typically designed only for a subset of document recognition problems, not for a complex identity document analysis. In this paper, we present a dataset MIDV-2020 which consists of 1000 video clips, 2000 scanned images, and 1000 photos of 1000 unique mock identity documents, each with unique text field values and unique artificially generated faces, with rich annotation. For the presented benchmark dataset baselines are provided for such tasks as document location and identification, text fields recognition, and face detection. With 72409 annotated images in total, to the date of publication the proposed dataset is the largest publicly available identity documents dataset with variable artificially generated data, and we believe that it will prove invaluable for advancement of the field of document analysis and recognition. The dataset is available for download at ftp://smartengines.com/midv-2020 and http://l3i-share.univ-lr.fr .


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The Contestation of Tech Ethics: A Sociotechnical Approach to Ethics and Technology in Action

Jun 03, 2021
Ben Green

Recent controversies related to topics such as fake news, privacy, and algorithmic bias have prompted increased public scrutiny of digital technologies and soul-searching among many of the people associated with their development. In response, the tech industry, academia, civil society, and governments have rapidly increased their attention to "ethics" in the design and use of digital technologies ("tech ethics"). Yet almost as quickly as ethics discourse has proliferated across the world of digital technologies, the limitations of these approaches have also become apparent: tech ethics is vague and toothless, is subsumed into corporate logics and incentives, and has a myopic focus on individual engineers and technology design rather than on the structures and cultures of technology production. As a result of these limitations, many have grown skeptical of tech ethics and its proponents, charging them with "ethics-washing": promoting ethics research and discourse to defuse criticism and government regulation without committing to ethical behavior. By looking at how ethics has been taken up in both science and business in superficial and depoliticizing ways, I recast tech ethics as a terrain of contestation where the central fault line is not whether it is desirable to be ethical, but what "ethics" entails and who gets to define it. This framing highlights the significant limits of current approaches to tech ethics and the importance of studying the formulation and real-world effects of tech ethics. In order to identify and develop more rigorous strategies for reforming digital technologies and the social relations that they mediate, I describe a sociotechnical approach to tech ethics, one that reflexively applies many of tech ethics' own lessons regarding digital technologies to tech ethics itself.


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A Novel Neuron Model of Visual Processor

Apr 15, 2021
Jizhao Liu, Jing Lian, J C Sprott, Yide Ma

Simulating and imitating the neuronal network of humans or mammals is a popular topic that has been explored for many years in the fields of pattern recognition and computer vision. Inspired by neuronal conduction characteristics in the primary visual cortex of cats, pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNNs) can exhibit synchronous oscillation behavior, which can process digital images without training. However, according to the study of single cells in the cat primary visual cortex, when a neuron is stimulated by an external periodic signal, the interspike-interval (ISI) distributions represent a multimodal distribution. This phenomenon cannot be explained by all PCNN models. By analyzing the working mechanism of the PCNN, we present a novel neuron model of the primary visual cortex consisting of a continuous-coupled neural network (CCNN). Our model inherited the threshold exponential decay and synchronous pulse oscillation property of the original PCNN model, and it can exhibit chaotic behavior consistent with the testing results of cat primary visual cortex neurons. Therefore, our CCNN model is closer to real visual neural networks. For image segmentation tasks, the algorithm based on CCNN model has better performance than the state-of-art of visual cortex neural network model. The strength of our approach is that it helps neurophysiologists further understand how the primary visual cortex works and can be used to quantitatively predict the temporal-spatial behavior of real neural networks. CCNN may also inspire engineers to create brain-inspired deep learning networks for artificial intelligence purposes.


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