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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Disentangled Spatiotemporal Graph Generative Models

Feb 28, 2022
Yuanqi Du, Xiaojie Guo, Hengning Cao, Yanfang Ye, Liang Zhao

Spatiotemporal graph represents a crucial data structure where the nodes and edges are embedded in a geometric space and can evolve dynamically over time. Nowadays, spatiotemporal graph data is becoming increasingly popular and important, ranging from microscale (e.g. protein folding), to middle-scale (e.g. dynamic functional connectivity), to macro-scale (e.g. human mobility network). Although disentangling and understanding the correlations among spatial, temporal, and graph aspects have been a long-standing key topic in network science, they typically rely on network processing hypothesized by human knowledge. This usually fit well towards the graph properties which can be predefined, but cannot do well for the most cases, especially for many key domains where the human has yet very limited knowledge such as protein folding and biological neuronal networks. In this paper, we aim at pushing forward the modeling and understanding of spatiotemporal graphs via new disentangled deep generative models. Specifically, a new Bayesian model is proposed that factorizes spatiotemporal graphs into spatial, temporal, and graph factors as well as the factors that explain the interplay among them. A variational objective function and new mutual information thresholding algorithms driven by information bottleneck theory have been proposed to maximize the disentanglement among the factors with theoretical guarantees. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on both synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model over the state-of-the-arts by up to 69.2% for graph generation and 41.5% for interpretability.

* In Thirty-Sixth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2022) Oral Presentation 

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Feature Selection-based Intrusion Detection System Using Genetic Whale Optimization Algorithm and Sample-based Classification

Jan 03, 2022
Amir Mojtahedi, Farid Sorouri, Alireza Najafi Souha, Aidin Molazadeh, Saeedeh Shafaei Mehr

Preventing and detecting intrusions and attacks on wireless networks has become an important and serious challenge. On the other hand, due to the limited resources of wireless nodes, the use of monitoring nodes for permanent monitoring in wireless sensor networks in order to prevent and detect intrusion and attacks in this type of network is practically non-existent. Therefore, the solution to overcome this problem today is the discussion of remote-control systems and has become one of the topics of interest in various fields. Remote monitoring of node performance and behavior in wireless sensor networks, in addition to detecting malicious nodes within the network, can also predict malicious node behavior in future. In present research, a network intrusion detection system using feature selection based on a combination of Whale optimization algorithm (WOA) and genetic algorithm (GA) and sample-based classification is proposed. In this research, the standard data set KDDCUP1999 has been used in which the characteristics related to healthy nodes and types of malicious nodes are stored based on the type of attacks in the network. The proposed method is based on the combination of feature selection based on Whale optimization algorithm and genetic algorithm with KNN classification in terms of accuracy criteria, has better results than other previous methods. Based on this, it can be said that the Whale optimization algorithm and the genetic algorithm have extracted the features related to the class label well, and the KNN method has been able to well detect the misconduct nodes in the intrusion detection data set in wireless networks.


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Data Collection and Quality Challenges in Deep Learning: A Data-Centric AI Perspective

Dec 13, 2021
Steven Euijong Whang, Yuji Roh, Hwanjun Song, Jae-Gil Lee

Software 2.0 is a fundamental shift in software engineering where machine learning becomes the new software, powered by big data and computing infrastructure. As a result, software engineering needs to be re-thought where data becomes a first-class citizen on par with code. One striking observation is that 80-90% of the machine learning process is spent on data preparation. Without good data, even the best machine learning algorithms cannot perform well. As a result, data-centric AI practices are now becoming mainstream. Unfortunately, many datasets in the real world are small, dirty, biased, and even poisoned. In this survey, we study the research landscape for data collection and data quality primarily for deep learning applications. Data collection is important because there is lesser need for feature engineering for recent deep learning approaches, but instead more need for large amounts of data. For data quality, we study data validation and data cleaning techniques. Even if the data cannot be fully cleaned, we can still cope with imperfect data during model training where using robust model training techniques. In addition, while bias and fairness have been less studied in traditional data management research, these issues become essential topics in modern machine learning applications. We thus study fairness measures and unfairness mitigation techniques that can be applied before, during, or after model training. We believe that the data management community is well poised to solve problems in these directions.


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Towards Language Modelling in the Speech Domain Using Sub-word Linguistic Units

Oct 31, 2021
Anurag Katakkar, Alan W Black

Language models (LMs) for text data have been studied extensively for their usefulness in language generation and other downstream tasks. However, language modelling purely in the speech domain is still a relatively unexplored topic, with traditional speech LMs often depending on auxiliary text LMs for learning distributional aspects of the language. For the English language, these LMs treat words as atomic units, which presents inherent challenges to language modelling in the speech domain. In this paper, we propose a novel LSTM-based generative speech LM that is inspired by the CBOW model and built on linguistic units including syllables and phonemes. This offers better acoustic consistency across utterances in the dataset, as opposed to single melspectrogram frames, or whole words. With a limited dataset, orders of magnitude smaller than that required by contemporary generative models, our model closely approximates babbling speech. We show the effect of training with auxiliary text LMs, multitask learning objectives, and auxiliary articulatory features. Through our experiments, we also highlight some well known, but poorly documented challenges in training generative speech LMs, including the mismatch between the supervised learning objective with which these models are trained such as Mean Squared Error (MSE), and the true objective, which is speech quality. Our experiments provide an early indication that while validation loss and Mel Cepstral Distortion (MCD) are not strongly correlated with generated speech quality, traditional text language modelling metrics like perplexity and next-token-prediction accuracy might be.


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BGaitR-Net: Occluded Gait Sequence reconstructionwith temporally constrained model for gait recognition

Oct 18, 2021
Somnath Sendhil Kumara, Pratik Chattopadhyaya, Lipo Wang

Recent advancements in computational resources and Deep Learning methodologies has significantly benefited development of intelligent vision-based surveillance applications. Gait recognition in the presence of occlusion is one of the challenging research topics in this area, and the solutions proposed by researchers to date lack in robustness and also dependent of several unrealistic constraints, which limits their practical applicability. We improve the state-of-the-art by developing novel deep learning-based algorithms to identify the occluded frames in an input sequence and next reconstruct these occluded frames by exploiting the spatio-temporal information present in the gait sequence. The multi-stage pipeline adopted in this work consists of key pose mapping, occlusion detection and reconstruction, and finally gait recognition. While the key pose mapping and occlusion detection phases are done %using Constrained KMeans Clustering and via a graph sorting algorithm, reconstruction of occluded frames is done by fusing the key pose-specific information derived in the previous step along with the spatio-temporal information contained in a gait sequence using a Bi-Directional Long Short Time Memory. This occlusion reconstruction model has been trained using synthetically occluded CASIA-B and OU-ISIR data, and the trained model is termed as Bidirectional Gait Reconstruction Network BGait-R-Net. Our LSTM-based model reconstructs occlusion and generates frames that are temporally consistent with the periodic pattern of a gait cycle, while simultaneously preserving the body structure.


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Color Counting for Fashion, Art, and Design

Oct 13, 2021
Mohammed Al-Rawi

Color modelling and extraction is an important topic in fashion, art, and design. Recommender systems, color-based retrieval, decorating, and fashion design can benefit from color extraction tools. Research has shown that modeling color so that it can be automatically analyzed and / or extracted is a difficult task. Unlike machines, color perception, although very subjective, is much simpler for humans. That being said, the first step in color modeling is to estimate the number of colors in the item / object. This is because color models can take advantage of the number of colors as the seed for better modelling, e.g., to make color extraction further deterministic. We aim in this work to develop and test models that can count the number of colors of clothing and other items. We propose a novel color counting method based on cumulative color histogram, which stands out among other methods. We compare the method we propose with other methods that utilize exhaustive color search that uses Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) and K-Means as bases for scoring the optimal number of colors, in addition to another method that relies on deep learning models. Unfortunately, the GMM, K-Means, and Deep Learning models all fail to accurately capture the number of colors. Our proposed method can provide the color baseline that can be used in AI-based fashion applications, and can also find applications in other areas, for example, interior design. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first of its kind that addresses the problem of color-counting machine.


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Automated Estimation of Construction Equipment Emission using Inertial Sensors and Machine Learning Models

Sep 27, 2021
Farid Shahnavaz, Reza Akhavian

The construction industry is one of the main producers of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Quantifying the amount of air pollutants including GHG emissions during a construction project has become an additional project objective to traditional metrics such as time, cost, and safety in many parts of the world. A major contributor to air pollution during construction is the use of heavy equipment and thus their efficient operation and management can substantially reduce the harm to the environment. Although the on-road vehicle emission prediction is a widely researched topic, construction equipment emission measurement and reduction have received very little attention. This paper describes the development and deployment of a novel framework that uses machine learning (ML) methods to predict the level of emissions from heavy construction equipment monitored via an Internet of Things (IoT) system comprised of accelerometer and gyroscope sensors. The developed framework was validated using an excavator performing real-world construction work. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was employed along with the inertial sensors to record data including the amount of CO, NOX, CO2, SO2, and CH4 pollutions emitted by the equipment. Different ML algorithms were developed and compared to identify the best model to predict emission levels from inertial sensors data. The results showed that Random Forest with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.94, 0.91 and 0.94 for CO, NOX, CO2, respectively was the best algorithm among different models evaluated in this study.


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TBNet:Two-Stream Boundary-aware Network for Generic Image Manipulation Localization

Aug 10, 2021
Zan Gao, Chao Sun, Zhiyong Cheng, Weili Guan, Anan Liu, Meng Wang

Finding tampered regions in images is a hot research topic in machine learning and computer vision. Although many image manipulation location algorithms have been proposed, most of them only focus on the RGB images with different color spaces, and the frequency information that contains the potential tampering clues is often ignored. In this work, a novel end-to-end two-stream boundary-aware network (abbreviated as TBNet) is proposed for generic image manipulation localization in which the RGB stream, the frequency stream, and the boundary artifact location are explored in a unified framework. Specifically, we first design an adaptive frequency selection module (AFS) to adaptively select the appropriate frequency to mine inconsistent statistics and eliminate the interference of redundant statistics. Then, an adaptive cross-attention fusion module (ACF) is proposed to adaptively fuse the RGB feature and the frequency feature. Finally, the boundary artifact location network (BAL) is designed to locate the boundary artifacts for which the parameters are jointly updated by the outputs of the ACF, and its results are further fed into the decoder. Thus, the parameters of the RGB stream, the frequency stream, and the boundary artifact location network are jointly optimized, and their latent complementary relationships are fully mined. The results of extensive experiments performed on four public benchmarks of the image manipulation localization task, namely, CASIA1.0, COVER, Carvalho, and In-The-Wild, demonstrate that the proposed TBNet can significantly outperform state-of-the-art generic image manipulation localization methods in terms of both MCC and F1.


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Grounding Spatio-Temporal Language with Transformers

Jun 16, 2021
Tristan Karch, Laetitia Teodorescu, Katja Hofmann, Clément Moulin-Frier, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer

Language is an interface to the outside world. In order for embodied agents to use it, language must be grounded in other, sensorimotor modalities. While there is an extended literature studying how machines can learn grounded language, the topic of how to learn spatio-temporal linguistic concepts is still largely uncharted. To make progress in this direction, we here introduce a novel spatio-temporal language grounding task where the goal is to learn the meaning of spatio-temporal descriptions of behavioral traces of an embodied agent. This is achieved by training a truth function that predicts if a description matches a given history of observations. The descriptions involve time-extended predicates in past and present tense as well as spatio-temporal references to objects in the scene. To study the role of architectural biases in this task, we train several models including multimodal Transformer architectures; the latter implement different attention computations between words and objects across space and time. We test models on two classes of generalization: 1) generalization to randomly held-out sentences; 2) generalization to grammar primitives. We observe that maintaining object identity in the attention computation of our Transformers is instrumental to achieving good performance on generalization overall, and that summarizing object traces in a single token has little influence on performance. We then discuss how this opens new perspectives for language-guided autonomous embodied agents. We also release our code under open-source license as well as pretrained models and datasets to encourage the wider community to build upon and extend our work in the future.

* Contains main article and supplementaries 

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TCN: Table Convolutional Network for Web Table Interpretation

Feb 17, 2021
Daheng Wang, Prashant Shiralkar, Colin Lockard, Binxuan Huang, Xin Luna Dong, Meng Jiang

Information extraction from semi-structured webpages provides valuable long-tailed facts for augmenting knowledge graph. Relational Web tables are a critical component containing additional entities and attributes of rich and diverse knowledge. However, extracting knowledge from relational tables is challenging because of sparse contextual information. Existing work linearize table cells and heavily rely on modifying deep language models such as BERT which only captures related cells information in the same table. In this work, we propose a novel relational table representation learning approach considering both the intra- and inter-table contextual information. On one hand, the proposed Table Convolutional Network model employs the attention mechanism to adaptively focus on the most informative intra-table cells of the same row or column; and, on the other hand, it aggregates inter-table contextual information from various types of implicit connections between cells across different tables. Specifically, we propose three novel aggregation modules for (i) cells of the same value, (ii) cells of the same schema position, and (iii) cells linked to the same page topic. We further devise a supervised multi-task training objective for jointly predicting column type and pairwise column relation, as well as a table cell recovery objective for pre-training. Experiments on real Web table datasets demonstrate our method can outperform competitive baselines by +4.8% of F1 for column type prediction and by +4.1% of F1 for pairwise column relation prediction.


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