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Semi-Supervised Self-Growing Generative Adversarial Networks for Image Recognition

Aug 11, 2019
Haoqian Wang, Zhiwei Xu, Jun Xu, Wangpeng An, Lei Zhang, Qionghai Dai

Image recognition is an important topic in computer vision and image processing, and has been mainly addressed by supervised deep learning methods, which need a large set of labeled images to achieve promising performance. However, in most cases, labeled data are expensive or even impossible to obtain, while unlabeled data are readily available from numerous free on-line resources and have been exploited to improve the performance of deep neural networks. To better exploit the power of unlabeled data for image recognition, in this paper, we propose a semi-supervised and generative approach, namely the semi-supervised self-growing generative adversarial network (SGGAN). Label inference is a key step for the success of semi-supervised learning approaches. There are two main problems in label inference: how to measure the confidence of the unlabeled data and how to generalize the classifier. We address these two problems via the generative framework and a novel convolution-block-transformation technique, respectively. To stabilize and speed up the training process of SGGAN, we employ the metric Maximum Mean Discrepancy as the feature matching objective function and achieve larger gain than the standard semi-supervised GANs (SSGANs), narrowing the gap to the supervised methods. Experiments on several benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed SGGAN on image recognition and facial attribute recognition tasks. By using the training data with only 4% labeled facial attributes, the SGGAN approach can achieve comparable accuracy with leading supervised deep learning methods with all labeled facial attributes.

* 13 pages, 11 figures, 8 tables. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1606.03498 by other authors 

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An Introduction to Probabilistic Programming

Sep 27, 2018
Jan-Willem van de Meent, Brooks Paige, Hongseok Yang, Frank Wood

This document is designed to be a first-year graduate-level introduction to probabilistic programming. It not only provides a thorough background for anyone wishing to use a probabilistic programming system, but also introduces the techniques needed to design and build these systems. It is aimed at people who have an undergraduate-level understanding of either or, ideally, both probabilistic machine learning and programming languages. We start with a discussion of model-based reasoning and explain why conditioning as a foundational computation is central to the fields of probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence. We then introduce a simple first-order probabilistic programming language (PPL) whose programs define static-computation-graph, finite-variable-cardinality models. In the context of this restricted PPL we introduce fundamental inference algorithms and describe how they can be implemented in the context of models denoted by probabilistic programs. In the second part of this document, we introduce a higher-order probabilistic programming language, with a functionality analogous to that of established programming languages. This affords the opportunity to define models with dynamic computation graphs, at the cost of requiring inference methods that generate samples by repeatedly executing the program. Foundational inference algorithms for this kind of probabilistic programming language are explained in the context of an interface between program executions and an inference controller. This document closes with a chapter on advanced topics which we believe to be, at the time of writing, interesting directions for probabilistic programming research; directions that point towards a tight integration with deep neural network research and the development of systems for next-generation artificial intelligence applications.

* Under review at Foundations and Trends in Machine Learning 

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In Defense of Single-column Networks for Crowd Counting

Aug 18, 2018
Ze Wang, Zehao Xiao, Kai Xie, Qiang Qiu, Xiantong Zhen, Xianbin Cao

Crowd counting usually addressed by density estimation becomes an increasingly important topic in computer vision due to its widespread applications in video surveillance, urban planning, and intelligence gathering. However, it is essentially a challenging task because of the greatly varied sizes of objects, coupled with severe occlusions and vague appearance of extremely small individuals. Existing methods heavily rely on multi-column learning architectures to extract multi-scale features, which however suffer from heavy computational cost, especially undesired for crowd counting. In this paper, we propose the single-column counting network (SCNet) for efficient crowd counting without relying on multi-column networks. SCNet consists of residual fusion modules (RFMs) for multi-scale feature extraction, a pyramid pooling module (PPM) for information fusion, and a sub-pixel convolutional module (SPCM) followed by a bilinear upsampling layer for resolution recovery. Those proposed modules enable our SCNet to fully capture multi-scale features in a compact single-column architecture and estimate high-resolution density map in an efficient way. In addition, we provide a principled paradigm for density map generation and data augmentation for training, which shows further improved performance. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our SCNet delivers new state-of-the-art performance and surpasses previous methods by large margins, which demonstrates the great effectiveness of SCNet as a single-column network for crowd counting.

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LEPOR: An Augmented Machine Translation Evaluation Metric

Mar 26, 2017
Aaron Li-Feng Han

Machine translation (MT) was developed as one of the hottest research topics in the natural language processing (NLP) literature. One important issue in MT is that how to evaluate the MT system reasonably and tell us whether the translation system makes an improvement or not. The traditional manual judgment methods are expensive, time-consuming, unrepeatable, and sometimes with low agreement. On the other hand, the popular automatic MT evaluation methods have some weaknesses. Firstly, they tend to perform well on the language pairs with English as the target language, but weak when English is used as source. Secondly, some methods rely on many additional linguistic features to achieve good performance, which makes the metric unable to replicate and apply to other language pairs easily. Thirdly, some popular metrics utilize incomprehensive factors, which result in low performance on some practical tasks. In this thesis, to address the existing problems, we design novel MT evaluation methods and investigate their performances on different languages. Firstly, we design augmented factors to yield highly accurate evaluation.Secondly, we design a tunable evaluation model where weighting of factors can be optimised according to the characteristics of languages. Thirdly, in the enhanced version of our methods, we design concise linguistic feature using POS to show that our methods can yield even higher performance when using some external linguistic resources. Finally, we introduce the practical performance of our metrics in the ACL-WMT workshop shared tasks, which show that the proposed methods are robust across different languages.

* 132 pages, thesis 

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Multi-domain machine translation enhancements by parallel data extraction from comparable corpora

Mar 22, 2016
Krzysztof Wołk, Emilia Rejmund, Krzysztof Marasek

Parallel texts are a relatively rare language resource, however, they constitute a very useful research material with a wide range of applications. This study presents and analyses new methodologies we developed for obtaining such data from previously built comparable corpora. The methodologies are automatic and unsupervised which makes them good for large scale research. The task is highly practical as non-parallel multilingual data occur much more frequently than parallel corpora and accessing them is easy, although parallel sentences are a considerably more useful resource. In this study, we propose a method of automatic web crawling in order to build topic-aligned comparable corpora, e.g. based on the Wikipedia or We also developed new methods of obtaining parallel sentences from comparable data and proposed methods of filtration of corpora capable of selecting inconsistent or only partially equivalent translations. Our methods are easily scalable to other languages. Evaluation of the quality of the created corpora was performed by analysing the impact of their use on statistical machine translation systems. Experiments were presented on the basis of the Polish-English language pair for texts from different domains, i.e. lectures, phrasebooks, film dialogues, European Parliament proceedings and texts contained medicines leaflets. We also tested a second method of creating parallel corpora based on data from comparable corpora which allows for automatically expanding the existing corpus of sentences about a given domain on the basis of analogies found between them. It does not require, therefore, having past parallel resources in order to train a classifier.

* parallel corpus, Polish, English, machine learning, comparable corpora, NLP. in Gruszczy\'nska, Ewa; Le\'nko-Szyma\'nska, Agnieszka, red. (2016). Polskoj\k{e}zyczne korpusy r\'ownoleg{\l}e. Polish-language Parallel Corpora. Warszawa: Instytut Lingwistyki Stosowanej. ISBN: 978-83-935320-4 

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Heuristic algorithms for finding distribution reducts in probabilistic rough set model

Dec 22, 2015
Xi'ao Ma, Guoyin Wang, Hong Yu

Attribute reduction is one of the most important topics in rough set theory. Heuristic attribute reduction algorithms have been presented to solve the attribute reduction problem. It is generally known that fitness functions play a key role in developing heuristic attribute reduction algorithms. The monotonicity of fitness functions can guarantee the validity of heuristic attribute reduction algorithms. In probabilistic rough set model, distribution reducts can ensure the decision rules derived from the reducts are compatible with those derived from the original decision table. However, there are few studies on developing heuristic attribute reduction algorithms for finding distribution reducts. This is partly due to the fact that there are no monotonic fitness functions that are used to design heuristic attribute reduction algorithms in probabilistic rough set model. The main objective of this paper is to develop heuristic attribute reduction algorithms for finding distribution reducts in probabilistic rough set model. For one thing, two monotonic fitness functions are constructed, from which equivalence definitions of distribution reducts can be obtained. For another, two modified monotonic fitness functions are proposed to evaluate the significance of attributes more effectively. On this basis, two heuristic attribute reduction algorithms for finding distribution reducts are developed based on addition-deletion method and deletion method. In particular, the monotonicity of fitness functions guarantees the rationality of the proposed heuristic attribute reduction algorithms. Results of experimental analysis are included to quantify the effectiveness of the proposed fitness functions and distribution reducts.

* 44 pages, 24 figures 

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Fast Reinforcement Learning for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communications

Jun 05, 2013
Nicholas Mastronarde, Mihaela van der Schaar

We consider the problem of energy-efficient point-to-point transmission of delay-sensitive data (e.g. multimedia data) over a fading channel. Existing research on this topic utilizes either physical-layer centric solutions, namely power-control and adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), or system-level solutions based on dynamic power management (DPM); however, there is currently no rigorous and unified framework for simultaneously utilizing both physical-layer centric and system-level techniques to achieve the minimum possible energy consumption, under delay constraints, in the presence of stochastic and a priori unknown traffic and channel conditions. In this report, we propose such a framework. We formulate the stochastic optimization problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) and solve it online using reinforcement learning. The advantages of the proposed online method are that (i) it does not require a priori knowledge of the traffic arrival and channel statistics to determine the jointly optimal power-control, AMC, and DPM policies; (ii) it exploits partial information about the system so that less information needs to be learned than when using conventional reinforcement learning algorithms; and (iii) it obviates the need for action exploration, which severely limits the adaptation speed and run-time performance of conventional reinforcement learning algorithms. Our results show that the proposed learning algorithms can converge up to two orders of magnitude faster than a state-of-the-art learning algorithm for physical layer power-control and up to three orders of magnitude faster than conventional reinforcement learning algorithms.

* N. Mastronarde and M. van der Schaar, "Joint physical-layer and system-level power management for delay-sensitive wireless communication," IEEE Trans. on Mobile Computing, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 694-709, April 2013 

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Least Squares Ranking on Graphs

Sep 06, 2011
Anil N. Hirani, Kaushik Kalyanaraman, Seth Watts

Given a set of alternatives to be ranked, and some pairwise comparison data, ranking is a least squares computation on a graph. The vertices are the alternatives, and the edge values comprise the comparison data. The basic idea is very simple and old: come up with values on vertices such that their differences match the given edge data. Since an exact match will usually be impossible, one settles for matching in a least squares sense. This formulation was first described by Leake in 1976 for rankingfootball teams and appears as an example in Professor Gilbert Strang's classic linear algebra textbook. If one is willing to look into the residual a little further, then the problem really comes alive, as shown effectively by the remarkable recent paper of Jiang et al. With or without this twist, the humble least squares problem on graphs has far-reaching connections with many current areas ofresearch. These connections are to theoretical computer science (spectral graph theory, and multilevel methods for graph Laplacian systems); numerical analysis (algebraic multigrid, and finite element exterior calculus); other mathematics (Hodge decomposition, and random clique complexes); and applications (arbitrage, and ranking of sports teams). Not all of these connections are explored in this paper, but many are. The underlying ideas are easy to explain, requiring only the four fundamental subspaces from elementary linear algebra. One of our aims is to explain these basic ideas and connections, to get researchers in many fields interested in this topic. Another aim is to use our numerical experiments for guidance on selecting methods and exposing the need for further development.

* Added missing references, comparison of linear solvers overhauled, conclusion section added, some new figures added 

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A Novel Self-Supervised Cross-Modal Image Retrieval Method In Remote Sensing

Feb 23, 2022
Gencer Sumbul, Markus Müller, Begüm Demir

Due to the availability of multi-modal remote sensing (RS) image archives, one of the most important research topics is the development of cross-modal RS image retrieval (CM-RSIR) methods that search semantically similar images across different modalities. Existing CM-RSIR methods require annotated training images (which is time-consuming, costly and not feasible to gather in large-scale applications) and do not concurrently address intra- and inter-modal similarity preservation and inter-modal discrepancy elimination. In this paper, we introduce a novel self-supervised cross-modal image retrieval method that aims to: i) model mutual-information between different modalities in a self-supervised manner; ii) retain the distributions of modal-specific feature spaces similar; and iii) define most similar images within each modality without requiring any annotated training images. To this end, we propose a novel objective including three loss functions that simultaneously: i) maximize mutual information of different modalities for inter-modal similarity preservation; ii) minimize the angular distance of multi-modal image tuples for the elimination of inter-modal discrepancies; and iii) increase cosine similarity of most similar images within each modality for the characterization of intra-modal similarities. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art methods. The code of the proposed method is publicly available at

* Submitted to IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2022. Our code is available at 

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Merit-based Fusion of NLP Techniques for Instant Feedback on Water Quality from Twitter Text

Feb 09, 2022
Khubaib Ahmad, Muhammad Asif Ayub, Kashif Ahmad, Jebran Khan, Nasir Ahmad, Ala Al-Fuqaha

This paper focuses on an important environmental challenge; namely, water quality by analyzing the potential of social media as an immediate source of feedback. The main goal of the work is to automatically analyze and retrieve social media posts relevant to water quality with particular attention to posts describing different aspects of water quality, such as watercolor, smell, taste, and related illnesses. To this aim, we propose a novel framework incorporating different preprocessing, data augmentation, and classification techniques. In total, three different Neural Networks (NNs) architectures, namely (i) Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), (ii) Robustly Optimized BERT Pre-training Approach (XLM-RoBERTa), and (iii) custom Long short-term memory (LSTM) model, are employed in a merit-based fusion scheme. For merit-based weight assignment to the models, several optimization and search techniques are compared including a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a Genetic Algorithm (GA), Brute Force (BF), Nelder-Mead, and Powell's optimization methods. We also provide an evaluation of the individual models where the highest F1-score of 0.81 is obtained with the BERT model. In merit-based fusion, overall better results are obtained with BF achieving an F1-score score of 0.852. We also provide comparison against existing methods, where a significant improvement for our proposed solutions is obtained. We believe such rigorous analysis of this relatively new topic will provide a baseline for future research.

* 10 pages, 2 figures, 8 tables 

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