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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Multi-label Dataless Text Classification with Topic Modeling

Nov 05, 2017
Daochen Zha, Chenliang Li

Manually labeling documents is tedious and expensive, but it is essential for training a traditional text classifier. In recent years, a few dataless text classification techniques have been proposed to address this problem. However, existing works mainly center on single-label classification problems, that is, each document is restricted to belonging to a single category. In this paper, we propose a novel Seed-guided Multi-label Topic Model, named SMTM. With a few seed words relevant to each category, SMTM conducts multi-label classification for a collection of documents without any labeled document. In SMTM, each category is associated with a single category-topic which covers the meaning of the category. To accommodate with multi-labeled documents, we explicitly model the category sparsity in SMTM by using spike and slab prior and weak smoothing prior. That is, without using any threshold tuning, SMTM automatically selects the relevant categories for each document. To incorporate the supervision of the seed words, we propose a seed-guided biased GPU (i.e., generalized Polya urn) sampling procedure to guide the topic inference of SMTM. Experiments on two public datasets show that SMTM achieves better classification accuracy than state-of-the-art alternatives and even outperforms supervised solutions in some scenarios.


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FOMO: Topics versus documents in legal eDiscovery

Sep 16, 2021
Herbert Roitblat

In the United States, the parties to a lawsuit are required to search through their electronically stored information to find documents that are relevant to the specific case and produce them to their opposing party. Negotiations over the scope of these searches often reflect a fear that something will be missed (Fear of Missing Out: FOMO). A Recall level of 80%, for example, means that 20% of the relevant documents will be left unproduced. This paper makes the argument that eDiscovery is the process of identifying responsive information, not identifying documents. Documents are the carriers of the information; they are not the direct targets of the process. A given document may contain one or more topics or factoids and a factoid may appear in more than one document. The coupon collector's problem, Heaps law, and other analyses provide ways to model the problem of finding information from among documents. In eDiscovery, however, the parties do not know how many factoids there might be in a collection or their probabilities. This paper describes a simple model that estimates the confidence that a fact will be omitted from the produced set (the identified set), while being contained in the missed set. Two data sets are then analyzed, a small set involving microaggressions and larger set involving classification of web pages. Both show that it is possible to discover at least one example of each available topic within a relatively small number of documents, meaning the further effort will not return additional novel information. The smaller data set is also used to investigate whether the non-random order of searching for responsive documents commonly used in eDiscovery (called continuous active learning) affects the distribution of topics-it does not.


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SMS Spam Filtering using Probabilistic Topic Modelling and Stacked Denoising Autoencoder

Jun 17, 2016
Noura Al Moubayed, Toby Breckon, Peter Matthews, A. Stephen McGough

In This paper we present a novel approach to spam filtering and demonstrate its applicability with respect to SMS messages. Our approach requires minimum features engineering and a small set of la- belled data samples. Features are extracted using topic modelling based on latent Dirichlet allocation, and then a comprehensive data model is created using a Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDA). Topic modelling summarises the data providing ease of use and high interpretability by visualising the topics using word clouds. Given that the SMS messages can be regarded as either spam (unwanted) or ham (wanted), the SDA is able to model the messages and accurately discriminate between the two classes without the need for a pre-labelled training set. The results are compared against the state-of-the-art spam detection algorithms with our proposed approach achieving over 97% accuracy which compares favourably to the best reported algorithms presented in the literature.

* Paper was accepted to the 25th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN 2016) 

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Extracting Entities and Topics from News and Connecting Criminal Records

May 03, 2020
Quang Pham, Marija Stanojevic, Zoran Obradovic

The goal of this paper is to summarize methodologies used in extracting entities and topics from a database of criminal records and from a database of newspapers. Statistical models had successfully been used in studying the topics of roughly 300,000 New York Times articles. In addition, these models had also been used to successfully analyze entities related to people, organizations, and places (D Newman, 2006). Additionally, analytical approaches, especially in hotspot mapping, were used in some researches with an aim to predict crime locations and circumstances in the future, and those approaches had been tested quite successfully (S Chainey, 2008). Based on the two above notions, this research was performed with the intention to apply data science techniques in analyzing a big amount of data, selecting valuable intelligence, clustering violations depending on their types of crime, and creating a crime graph that changes through time. In this research, the task was to download criminal datasets from Kaggle and a collection of news articles from Kaggle and EAGER project databases, and then to merge these datasets into one general dataset. The most important goal of this project was performing statistical and natural language processing methods to extract entities and topics as well as to group similar data points into correct clusters, in order to understand public data about U.S related crimes better.

* This is a report submitted by an undergraduate student as preliminary work on this problem 

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Keep it Consistent: Topic-Aware Storytelling from an Image Stream via Iterative Multi-agent Communication

Nov 11, 2019
Ruize Wang, Zhongyu Wei, Piji Li, Haijun Shan, Ji Zhang, Qi Zhang, Xuanjing Huang

Visual storytelling aims to generate a narrative paragraph from a sequence of images automatically. Existing approaches construct text description independently for each image and roughly concatenate them as a story, which leads to the problem of generating semantically incoherent content. In this paper, we proposed a new way for visual storytelling by introducing a topic description task to detect the global semantic context of an image stream. A story is then constructed with the guidance of the topic description. In order to combine the two generation tasks, we propose a multi-agent communication framework that regards the topic description generator and the story generator as two agents and learn them simultaneously via iterative updating mechanism. We validate our approach on VIST, where quantitative results, ablations, and human evaluation demonstrate our method's good ability in generating stories with higher quality compared to state-of-the-art methods.

* 12 pages, 5 figures, 5 tables submitted for consideration of publication to the IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, 2019 

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Semantic Knowledge Discovery and Discussion Mining of Incel Online Community: Topic modeling

Apr 21, 2021
Hamed Jelodar, Richard Frank

Online forums provide a unique opportunity for online users to share comments and exchange information on a particular topic. Understanding user behaviour is valuable to organizations and has applications for social and security strategies, for instance, identifying user opinions within a community or predicting future behaviour. Discovering the semantic aspects in Incel forums are the main goal of this research; we apply Natural language processing techniques based on topic modeling to latent topic discovery and opinion mining of users from a popular online Incel discussion forum. To prepare the input data for our study, we extracted the comments from Incels.co. The research experiments show that Artificial Intelligence (AI) based on NLP models can be effective for semantic and emotion knowledge discovery and retrieval of useful information from the Incel community. For example, we discovered semantic-related words that describe issues within a large volume of Incel comments, which is difficult with manual methods.


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Recurrent Topic-Transition GAN for Visual Paragraph Generation

Mar 23, 2017
Xiaodan Liang, Zhiting Hu, Hao Zhang, Chuang Gan, Eric P. Xing

A natural image usually conveys rich semantic content and can be viewed from different angles. Existing image description methods are largely restricted by small sets of biased visual paragraph annotations, and fail to cover rich underlying semantics. In this paper, we investigate a semi-supervised paragraph generative framework that is able to synthesize diverse and semantically coherent paragraph descriptions by reasoning over local semantic regions and exploiting linguistic knowledge. The proposed Recurrent Topic-Transition Generative Adversarial Network (RTT-GAN) builds an adversarial framework between a structured paragraph generator and multi-level paragraph discriminators. The paragraph generator generates sentences recurrently by incorporating region-based visual and language attention mechanisms at each step. The quality of generated paragraph sentences is assessed by multi-level adversarial discriminators from two aspects, namely, plausibility at sentence level and topic-transition coherence at paragraph level. The joint adversarial training of RTT-GAN drives the model to generate realistic paragraphs with smooth logical transition between sentence topics. Extensive quantitative experiments on image and video paragraph datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our RTT-GAN in both supervised and semi-supervised settings. Qualitative results on telling diverse stories for an image also verify the interpretability of RTT-GAN.

* 10 pages, 6 figures 

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Generating Math Word Problems from Equations with Topic Controlling and Commonsense Enforcement

Dec 14, 2020
Tianyang Cao, Shuang Zeng, Songge Zhao, Mairgup Mansur, Baobao Chang

Recent years have seen significant advancement in text generation tasks with the help of neural language models. However, there exists a challenging task: generating math problem text based on mathematical equations, which has made little progress so far. In this paper, we present a novel equation-to-problem text generation model. In our model, 1) we propose a flexible scheme to effectively encode math equations, we then enhance the equation encoder by a Varitional Autoen-coder (VAE) 2) given a math equation, we perform topic selection, followed by which a dynamic topic memory mechanism is introduced to restrict the topic distribution of the generator 3) to avoid commonsense violation in traditional generation model, we pretrain word embedding with background knowledge graph (KG), and we link decoded words to related words in KG, targeted at injecting background knowledge into our model. We evaluate our model through both automatic metrices and human evaluation, experiments demonstrate our model outperforms baseline and previous models in both accuracy and richness of generated problem text.


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A latent topic model for mining heterogenous non-randomly missing electronic health records data

Nov 01, 2018
Yue Li, Manolis Kellis

Electronic health records (EHR) are rich heterogeneous collection of patient health information, whose broad adoption provides great opportunities for systematic health data mining. However, heterogeneous EHR data types and biased ascertainment impose computational challenges. Here, we present mixEHR, an unsupervised generative model integrating collaborative filtering and latent topic models, which jointly models the discrete distributions of data observation bias and actual data using latent disease-topic distributions. We apply mixEHR on 12.8 million phenotypic observations from the MIMIC dataset, and use it to reveal latent disease topics, interpret EHR results, impute missing data, and predict mortality in intensive care units. Using both simulation and real data, we show that mixEHR outperforms previous methods and reveals meaningful multi-disease insights.


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