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"Topic": models, code, and papers

A Comparative Study on Speaker-attributed Automatic Speech Recognition in Multi-party Meetings

Apr 01, 2022
Fan Yu, Zhihao Du, Shiliang Zhang, Yuxiao Lin, Lei Xie

In this paper, we conduct a comparative study on speaker-attributed automatic speech recognition (SA-ASR) in the multi-party meeting scenario, a topic with increasing attention in meeting rich transcription. Specifically, three approaches are evaluated in this study. The first approach, FD-SOT, consists of a frame-level diarization model to identify speakers and a multi-talker ASR to recognize utterances. The speaker-attributed transcriptions are obtained by aligning the diarization results and recognized hypotheses. However, such an alignment strategy may suffer from erroneous timestamps due to the modular independence, severely hindering the model performance. Therefore, we propose the second approach, WD-SOT, to address alignment errors by introducing a word-level diarization model, which can get rid of such timestamp alignment dependency. To further mitigate the alignment issues, we propose the third approach, TS-ASR, which trains a target-speaker separation module and an ASR module jointly. By comparing various strategies for each SA-ASR approach, experimental results on a real meeting scenario corpus, AliMeeting, reveal that the WD-SOT approach achieves 10.7% relative reduction on averaged speaker-dependent character error rate (SD-CER), compared with the FD-SOT approach. In addition, the TS-ASR approach also outperforms the FD-SOT approach and brings 16.5% relative average SD-CER reduction.

* Submitted to INTERSPEECH 2022, 5 pages, 2 figures (add a figure to explain the world-level diarization method) 

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Towards Disturbance-Free Visual Mobile Manipulation

Dec 17, 2021
Tianwei Ni, Kiana Ehsani, Luca Weihs, Jordi Salvador

Embodied AI has shown promising results on an abundance of robotic tasks in simulation, including visual navigation and manipulation. The prior work generally pursues high success rates with shortest paths while largely ignoring the problems caused by collision during interaction. This lack of prioritization is understandable: in simulated environments there is no inherent cost to breaking virtual objects. As a result, well-trained agents frequently have catastrophic collision with objects despite final success. In the robotics community, where the cost of collision is large, collision avoidance is a long-standing and crucial topic to ensure that robots can be safely deployed in the real world. In this work, we take the first step towards collision/disturbance-free embodied AI agents for visual mobile manipulation, facilitating safe deployment in real robots. We develop a new disturbance-avoidance methodology at the heart of which is the auxiliary task of disturbance prediction. When combined with a disturbance penalty, our auxiliary task greatly enhances sample efficiency and final performance by knowledge distillation of disturbance into the agent. Our experiments on ManipulaTHOR show that, on testing scenes with novel objects, our method improves the success rate from 61.7% to 85.6% and the success rate without disturbance from 29.8% to 50.2% over the original baseline. Extensive ablation studies show the value of our pipelined approach. Project site is at https://sites.google.com/view/disturb-free


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Human Languages with Greater Information Density Increase Communication Speed, but Decrease Conversation Breadth

Dec 15, 2021
Pedro Aceves, James A. Evans

Language is the primary medium through which human information is communicated and coordination is achieved. One of the most important language functions is to categorize the world so messages can be communicated through conversation. While we know a great deal about how human languages vary in their encoding of information within semantic domains such as color, sound, number, locomotion, time, space, human activities, gender, body parts and biology, little is known about the global structure of semantic information and its effect on human communication. Using large-scale computation, artificial intelligence techniques, and massive, parallel corpora across 15 subject areas--including religion, economics, medicine, entertainment, politics, and technology--in 999 languages, here we show substantial variation in the information and semantic density of languages and their consequences for human communication and coordination. In contrast to prior work, we demonstrate that higher density languages communicate information much more quickly relative to lower density languages. Then, using over 9,000 real-life conversations across 14 languages and 90,000 Wikipedia articles across 140 languages, we show that because there are more ways to discuss any given topic in denser languages, conversations and articles retrace and cycle over a narrower conceptual terrain. These results demonstrate an important source of variation across the human communicative channel, suggesting that the structure of language shapes the nature and texture of conversation, with important consequences for the behavior of groups, organizations, markets, and societies.


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OstrichRL: A Musculoskeletal Ostrich Simulation to Study Bio-mechanical Locomotion

Dec 11, 2021
Vittorio La Barbera, Fabio Pardo, Yuval Tassa, Monica Daley, Christopher Richards, Petar Kormushev, John Hutchinson

Muscle-actuated control is a research topic of interest spanning different fields, in particular biomechanics, robotics and graphics. This type of control is particularly challenging because models are often overactuated, and dynamics are delayed and non-linear. It is however a very well tested and tuned actuation model that has undergone millions of years of evolution and that involves interesting properties exploiting passive forces of muscle-tendon units and efficient energy storage and release. To facilitate research on muscle-actuated simulation, we release a 3D musculoskeletal simulation of an ostrich based on the MuJoCo simulator. Ostriches are one of the fastest bipeds on earth and are therefore an excellent model for studying muscle-actuated bipedal locomotion. The model is based on CT scans and dissections used to gather actual muscle data such as insertion sites, lengths and pennation angles. Along with this model, we also provide a set of reinforcement learning tasks, including reference motion tracking and a reaching task with the neck. The reference motion data are based on motion capture clips of various behaviors which we pre-processed and adapted to our model. This paper describes how the model was built and iteratively improved using the tasks. We evaluate the accuracy of the muscle actuation patterns by comparing them to experimentally collected electromyographic data from locomoting birds. We believe that this work can be a useful bridge between the biomechanics, reinforcement learning, graphics and robotics communities, by providing a fast and easy to use simulation.

* https://github.com/vittorione94/ostrichrl 

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Position Paper on Simulating Privacy Dynamics in Recommender Systems

Sep 14, 2021
Peter Müllner, Elisabeth Lex, Dominik Kowald

In this position paper, we discuss the merits of simulating privacy dynamics in recommender systems. We study this issue at hand from two perspectives: Firstly, we present a conceptual approach to integrate privacy into recommender system simulations, whose key elements are privacy agents. These agents can enhance users' profiles with different privacy preferences, e.g., their inclination to disclose data to the recommender system. Plus, they can protect users' privacy by guarding all actions that could be a threat to privacy. For example, agents can prohibit a user's privacy-threatening actions or apply privacy-enhancing techniques, e.g., Differential Privacy, to make actions less threatening. Secondly, we identify three critical topics for future research in privacy-aware recommender system simulations: (i) How could we model users' privacy preferences and protect users from performing any privacy-threatening actions? (ii) To what extent do privacy agents modify the users' document preferences? (iii) How do privacy preferences and privacy protections impact recommendations and privacy of others? Our conceptual privacy-aware simulation approach makes it possible to investigate the impact of privacy preferences and privacy protection on the micro-level, i.e., a single user, but also on the macro-level, i.e., all recommender system users. With this work, we hope to present perspectives on how privacy-aware simulations could be realized, such that they enable researchers to study the dynamics of privacy within a recommender system.

* Accepted to the Workshop on Simulation Methods for Recommender Systems at ACM RecSys 2021 

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LG4AV: Combining Language Models and Graph Neural Networks for Author Verification

Sep 03, 2021
Maximilian Stubbemann, Gerd Stumme

The automatic verification of document authorships is important in various settings. Researchers are for example judged and compared by the amount and impact of their publications and public figures are confronted by their posts on social media platforms. Therefore, it is important that authorship information in frequently used web services and platforms is correct. The question whether a given document is written by a given author is commonly referred to as authorship verification (AV). While AV is a widely investigated problem in general, only few works consider settings where the documents are short and written in a rather uniform style. This makes most approaches unpractical for online databases and knowledge graphs in the scholarly domain. Here, authorships of scientific publications have to be verified, often with just abstracts and titles available. To this point, we present our novel approach LG4AV which combines language models and graph neural networks for authorship verification. By directly feeding the available texts in a pre-trained transformer architecture, our model does not need any hand-crafted stylometric features that are not meaningful in scenarios where the writing style is, at least to some extent, standardized. By the incorporation of a graph neural network structure, our model can benefit from relations between authors that are meaningful with respect to the verification process. For example, scientific authors are more likely to write about topics that are addressed by their co-authors and twitter users tend to post about the same subjects as people they follow. We experimentally evaluate our model and study to which extent the inclusion of co-authorships enhances verification decisions in bibliometric environments.

* 9 pages, 1 figure 

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Exploring and Distilling Posterior and Prior Knowledge for Radiology Report Generation

Jun 26, 2021
Fenglin Liu, Xian Wu, Shen Ge, Wei Fan, Yuexian Zou

Automatically generating radiology reports can improve current clinical practice in diagnostic radiology. On one hand, it can relieve radiologists from the heavy burden of report writing; On the other hand, it can remind radiologists of abnormalities and avoid the misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. Yet, this task remains a challenging job for data-driven neural networks, due to the serious visual and textual data biases. To this end, we propose a Posterior-and-Prior Knowledge Exploring-and-Distilling approach (PPKED) to imitate the working patterns of radiologists, who will first examine the abnormal regions and assign the disease topic tags to the abnormal regions, and then rely on the years of prior medical knowledge and prior working experience accumulations to write reports. Thus, the PPKED includes three modules: Posterior Knowledge Explorer (PoKE), Prior Knowledge Explorer (PrKE) and Multi-domain Knowledge Distiller (MKD). In detail, PoKE explores the posterior knowledge, which provides explicit abnormal visual regions to alleviate visual data bias; PrKE explores the prior knowledge from the prior medical knowledge graph (medical knowledge) and prior radiology reports (working experience) to alleviate textual data bias. The explored knowledge is distilled by the MKD to generate the final reports. Evaluated on MIMIC-CXR and IU-Xray datasets, our method is able to outperform previous state-of-the-art models on these two datasets.

* Accepted by CVPR 2021 (2021 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR2021)) 

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Phraseformer: Multimodal Key-phrase Extraction using Transformer and Graph Embedding

Jun 09, 2021
Narjes Nikzad-Khasmakhi, Mohammad-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi, Meysam Asgari-Chenaghlu, Mohammad-Ali Balafar, Ali-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi, Taymaz Rahkar-Farshi, Majid Ramezani, Zoleikha Jahanbakhsh-Nagadeh, Elnaz Zafarani-Moattar, Mehrdad Ranjbar-Khadivi

Background: Keyword extraction is a popular research topic in the field of natural language processing. Keywords are terms that describe the most relevant information in a document. The main problem that researchers are facing is how to efficiently and accurately extract the core keywords from a document. However, previous keyword extraction approaches have utilized the text and graph features, there is the lack of models that can properly learn and combine these features in a best way. Methods: In this paper, we develop a multimodal Key-phrase extraction approach, namely Phraseformer, using transformer and graph embedding techniques. In Phraseformer, each keyword candidate is presented by a vector which is the concatenation of the text and structure learning representations. Phraseformer takes the advantages of recent researches such as BERT and ExEm to preserve both representations. Also, the Phraseformer treats the key-phrase extraction task as a sequence labeling problem solved using classification task. Results: We analyze the performance of Phraseformer on three datasets including Inspec, SemEval2010 and SemEval 2017 by F1-score. Also, we investigate the performance of different classifiers on Phraseformer method over Inspec dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of Phraseformer method over the three datasets used. Additionally, the Random Forest classifier gain the highest F1-score among all classifiers. Conclusions: Due to the fact that the combination of BERT and ExEm is more meaningful and can better represent the semantic of words. Hence, Phraseformer significantly outperforms single-modality methods.


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SuperFront: From Low-resolution to High-resolution Frontal Face Synthesis

Dec 07, 2020
Yu Yin, Joseph P. Robinson, Songyao Jiang, Yue Bai, Can Qin, Yun Fu

Advances in face rotation, along with other face-based generative tasks, are more frequent as we advance further in topics of deep learning. Even as impressive milestones are achieved in synthesizing faces, the importance of preserving identity is needed in practice and should not be overlooked. Also, the difficulty should not be more for data with obscured faces, heavier poses, and lower quality. Existing methods tend to focus on samples with variation in pose, but with the assumption data is high in quality. We propose a generative adversarial network (GAN) -based model to generate high-quality, identity preserving frontal faces from one or multiple low-resolution (LR) faces with extreme poses. Specifically, we propose SuperFront-GAN (SF-GAN) to synthesize a high-resolution (HR), frontal face from one-to-many LR faces with various poses and with the identity-preserved. We integrate a super-resolution (SR) side-view module into SF-GAN to preserve identity information and fine details of the side-views in HR space, which helps model reconstruct high-frequency information of faces (i.e., periocular, nose, and mouth regions). Moreover, SF-GAN accepts multiple LR faces as input, and improves each added sample. We squeeze additional gain in performance with an orthogonal constraint in the generator to penalize redundant latent representations and, hence, diversify the learned features space. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrate the superiority of SF-GAN over others.


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