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"Topic": models, code, and papers

High Performance Latent Variable Models

Nov 11, 2015
Aaron Q. Li, Amr Ahmed, Mu Li, Vanja Josifovski

Latent variable models have accumulated a considerable amount of interest from the industry and academia for their versatility in a wide range of applications. A large amount of effort has been made to develop systems that is able to extend the systems to a large scale, in the hope to make use of them on industry scale data. In this paper, we describe a system that operates at a scale orders of magnitude higher than previous works, and an order of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art system at the same scale, at the same time showing more robustness and more accurate results. Our system uses a number of advances in distributed inference: high performance in synchronization of sufficient statistics with relaxed consistency model; fast sampling, using the Metropolis-Hastings-Walker method to overcome dense generative models; statistical modeling, moving beyond Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to Pitman-Yor distributions (PDP) and Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (HDP) models; sophisticated parameter projection schemes, to resolve the conflicts within the constraint between parameters arising from the relaxed consistency model. This work significantly extends the domain of applicability of what is commonly known as the Parameter Server. We obtain results with up to hundreds billion oftokens, thousands of topics, and a vocabulary of a few million token-types, using up to 60,000 processor cores operating on a production cluster of a large Internet company. This demonstrates the feasibility to scale to problems orders of magnitude larger than any previously published work.

* arXiv admin note: This paper has been withdrawn due to an irreconcilable author dispute 

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On Algebraic Constructions of Neural Networks with Small Weights

May 17, 2022
Kordag Mehmet Kilic, Jin Sima, Jehoshua Bruck

Neural gates compute functions based on weighted sums of the input variables. The expressive power of neural gates (number of distinct functions it can compute) depends on the weight sizes and, in general, large weights (exponential in the number of inputs) are required. Studying the trade-offs among the weight sizes, circuit size and depth is a well-studied topic both in circuit complexity theory and the practice of neural computation. We propose a new approach for studying these complexity trade-offs by considering a related algebraic framework. Specifically, given a single linear equation with arbitrary coefficients, we would like to express it using a system of linear equations with smaller (even constant) coefficients. The techniques we developed are based on Siegel's Lemma for the bounds, anti-concentration inequalities for the existential results and extensions of Sylvester-type Hadamard matrices for the constructions. We explicitly construct a constant weight, optimal size matrix to compute the EQUALITY function (checking if two integers expressed in binary are equal). Computing EQUALITY with a single linear equation requires exponentially large weights. In addition, we prove the existence of the best-known weight size (linear) matrices to compute the COMPARISON function (comparing between two integers expressed in binary). In the context of the circuit complexity theory, our results improve the upper bounds on the weight sizes for the best-known circuit sizes for EQUALITY and COMPARISON.


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SalesBot: Transitioning from Chit-Chat to Task-Oriented Dialogues

Apr 22, 2022
Ssu Chiu, Maolin Li, Yen-Ting Lin, Yun-Nung Chen

Dialogue systems are usually categorized into two types, open-domain and task-oriented. The first one focuses on chatting with users and making them engage in the conversations, where selecting a proper topic to fit the dialogue context is essential for a successful dialogue. The other one focuses on a specific task instead of casual talks, e.g., finding a movie on Friday night, or playing a song. These two directions have been studied separately due to their different purposes. However, how smoothly transitioning from social chatting to task-oriented dialogues is important for triggering business opportunities, and there is no public data focusing on such scenarios. Hence, this paper focuses on investigating the conversations starting from open-domain social chatting and then gradually transitioning to task-oriented purposes, and releases a large-scale dataset with detailed annotations for encouraging this research direction. To achieve this goal, this paper proposes a framework to automatically generate many dialogues without human involvement, in which any powerful open-domain dialogue generation model can be easily leveraged. The human evaluation shows that our generated dialogue data has a natural flow at a reasonable quality, showing that our released data has a great potential of guiding future research directions and commercial activities. Furthermore, the released models allow researchers to automatically generate unlimited dialogues in the target scenarios, which can greatly benefit semi-supervised and unsupervised approaches.

* ACL 2022 

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Achieving Reliable Human Assessment of Open-Domain Dialogue Systems

Mar 11, 2022
Tianbo Ji, Yvette Graham, Gareth J. F. Jones, Chenyang Lyu, Qun Liu

Evaluation of open-domain dialogue systems is highly challenging and development of better techniques is highlighted time and again as desperately needed. Despite substantial efforts to carry out reliable live evaluation of systems in recent competitions, annotations have been abandoned and reported as too unreliable to yield sensible results. This is a serious problem since automatic metrics are not known to provide a good indication of what may or may not be a high-quality conversation. Answering the distress call of competitions that have emphasized the urgent need for better evaluation techniques in dialogue, we present the successful development of human evaluation that is highly reliable while still remaining feasible and low cost. Self-replication experiments reveal almost perfectly repeatable results with a correlation of $r=0.969$. Furthermore, due to the lack of appropriate methods of statistical significance testing, the likelihood of potential improvements to systems occurring due to chance is rarely taken into account in dialogue evaluation, and the evaluation we propose facilitates application of standard tests. Since we have developed a highly reliable evaluation method, new insights into system performance can be revealed. We therefore include a comparison of state-of-the-art models (i) with and without personas, to measure the contribution of personas to conversation quality, as well as (ii) prescribed versus freely chosen topics. Interestingly with respect to personas, results indicate that personas do not positively contribute to conversation quality as expected.

* to appear at ACL 2022 main conference 

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Video Frame Interpolation without Temporal Priors

Dec 02, 2021
Youjian Zhang, Chaoyue Wang, Dacheng Tao

Video frame interpolation, which aims to synthesize non-exist intermediate frames in a video sequence, is an important research topic in computer vision. Existing video frame interpolation methods have achieved remarkable results under specific assumptions, such as instant or known exposure time. However, in complicated real-world situations, the temporal priors of videos, i.e. frames per second (FPS) and frame exposure time, may vary from different camera sensors. When test videos are taken under different exposure settings from training ones, the interpolated frames will suffer significant misalignment problems. In this work, we solve the video frame interpolation problem in a general situation, where input frames can be acquired under uncertain exposure (and interval) time. Unlike previous methods that can only be applied to a specific temporal prior, we derive a general curvilinear motion trajectory formula from four consecutive sharp frames or two consecutive blurry frames without temporal priors. Moreover, utilizing constraints within adjacent motion trajectories, we devise a novel optical flow refinement strategy for better interpolation results. Finally, experiments demonstrate that one well-trained model is enough for synthesizing high-quality slow-motion videos under complicated real-world situations. Codes are available on https://github.com/yjzhang96/UTI-VFI.

* Accepted by Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) 2020 

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Multi-modal Self-supervised Pre-training for Regulatory Genome Across Cell Types

Nov 03, 2021
Shentong Mo, Xi Fu, Chenyang Hong, Yizhen Chen, Yuxuan Zheng, Xiangru Tang, Zhiqiang Shen, Eric P Xing, Yanyan Lan

In the genome biology research, regulatory genome modeling is an important topic for many regulatory downstream tasks, such as promoter classification, transaction factor binding sites prediction. The core problem is to model how regulatory elements interact with each other and its variability across different cell types. However, current deep learning methods often focus on modeling genome sequences of a fixed set of cell types and do not account for the interaction between multiple regulatory elements, making them only perform well on the cell types in the training set and lack the generalizability required in biological applications. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective approach for pre-training genome data in a multi-modal and self-supervised manner, which we call GeneBERT. Specifically, we simultaneously take the 1d sequence of genome data and a 2d matrix of (transcription factors x regions) as the input, where three pre-training tasks are proposed to improve the robustness and generalizability of our model. We pre-train our model on the ATAC-seq dataset with 17 million genome sequences. We evaluate our GeneBERT on regulatory downstream tasks across different cell types, including promoter classification, transaction factor binding sites prediction, disease risk estimation, and splicing sites prediction. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of multi-modal and self-supervised pre-training for large-scale regulatory genomics data.


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WenetSpeech: A 10000+ Hours Multi-domain Mandarin Corpus for Speech Recognition

Oct 18, 2021
Binbin Zhang, Hang Lv, Pengcheng Guo, Qijie Shao, Chao Yang, Lei Xie, Xin Xu, Hui Bu, Xiaoyu Chen, Chenchen Zeng, Di Wu, Zhendong Peng

In this paper, we present WenetSpeech, a multi-domain Mandarin corpus consisting of 10000+ hours high-quality labeled speech, 2400+ hours weakly labeled speech, and about 10000 hours unlabeled speech, with 22400+ hours in total. We collect the data from YouTube and Podcast, which covers a variety of speaking styles, scenarios, domains, topics, and noisy conditions. An optical character recognition (OCR) based method is introduced to generate the audio/text segmentation candidates for the YouTube data on its corresponding video captions, while a high-quality ASR transcription system is used to generate audio/text pair candidates for the Podcast data. Then we propose a novel end-to-end label error detection approach to further validate and filter the candidates. We also provide three manually labelled high-quality test sets along with WenetSpeech for evaluation -- Dev for cross-validation purpose in training, Test_Net, collected from Internet for matched test, and Test\_Meeting, recorded from real meetings for more challenging mismatched test. Baseline systems trained with WenetSpeech are provided for three popular speech recognition toolkits, namely Kaldi, ESPnet, and WeNet, and recognition results on the three test sets are also provided as benchmarks. To the best of our knowledge, WenetSpeech is the current largest open-sourced Mandarin speech corpus with transcriptions, which benefits research on production-level speech recognition.


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Efficient Hybrid Transformer: Learning Global-local Context for Urban Scene Segmentation

Oct 13, 2021
Libo Wang, Shenghui Fang, Ce Zhang, Rui Li, Chenxi Duan

Semantic segmentation of fine-resolution urban scene images plays a vital role in extensive practical applications, such as land cover mapping, urban change detection, environmental protection and economic assessment. Driven by rapid developments in deep learning technologies, the convolutional neural network (CNN) has dominated the semantic segmentation task for many years. Convolutional neural networks adopt hierarchical feature representation, demonstrating strong local information extraction. However, the local property of the convolution layer limits the network from capturing global context that is crucial for precise segmentation. Recently, Transformer comprise a hot topic in the computer vision domain. Transformer demonstrates the great capability of global information modelling, boosting many vision tasks, such as image classification, object detection and especially semantic segmentation. In this paper, we propose an efficient hybrid Transformer (EHT) for real-time urban scene segmentation. The EHT adopts a hybrid structure with and CNN-based encoder and a transformer-based decoder, learning global-local context with lower computation. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our EHT has faster inference speed with competitive accuracy compared with state-of-the-art lightweight models. Specifically, the proposed EHT achieves a 66.9% mIoU on the UAVid test set and outperforms other benchmark networks significantly. The code will be available soon.


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