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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Accident Risk Prediction based on Heterogeneous Sparse Data: New Dataset and Insights

Sep 19, 2019
Sobhan Moosavi, Mohammad Hossein Samavatian, Srinivasan Parthasarathy, Radu Teodorescu, Rajiv Ramnath

Reducing traffic accidents is an important public safety challenge, therefore, accident analysis and prediction has been a topic of much research over the past few decades. Using small-scale datasets with limited coverage, being dependent on extensive set of data, and being not applicable for real-time purposes are the important shortcomings of the existing studies. To address these challenges, we propose a new solution for real-time traffic accident prediction using easy-to-obtain, but sparse data. Our solution relies on a deep-neural-network model (which we have named DAP, for Deep Accident Prediction); which utilizes a variety of data attributes such as traffic events, weather data, points-of-interest, and time. DAP incorporates multiple components including a recurrent (for time-sensitive data), a fully connected (for time-insensitive data), and a trainable embedding component (to capture spatial heterogeneity). To fill the data gap, we have - through a comprehensive process of data collection, integration, and augmentation - created a large-scale publicly available database of accident information named US-Accidents. By employing the US-Accidents dataset and through an extensive set of experiments across several large cities, we have evaluated our proposal against several baselines. Our analysis and results show significant improvements to predict rare accident events. Further, we have shown the impact of traffic information, time, and points-of-interest data for real-time accident prediction.

* In Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGSPATIAL, International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (2019). arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1906.05409 

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REAPS: Towards Better Recognition of Fine-grained Images by Region Attending and Part Sequencing

Aug 06, 2019
Peng Zhang, Xinyu Zhu, Zhanzhan Cheng, Shuigeng Zhou, Yi Niu

Fine-grained image recognition has been a hot research topic in computer vision due to its various applications. The-state-of-the-art is the part/region-based approaches that first localize discriminative parts/regions, and then learn their fine-grained features. However, these approaches have some inherent drawbacks: 1) the discriminative feature representation of an object is prone to be disturbed by complicated background; 2) it is unreasonable and inflexible to fix the number of salient parts, because the intended parts may be unavailable under certain circumstances due to occlusion or incompleteness, and 3) the spatial correlation among different salient parts has not been thoroughly exploited (if not completely neglected). To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper we propose a new, simple yet robust method by building part sequence model on the attended object region. Concretely, we first try to alleviate the background effect by using a region attention mechanism to generate the attended region from the original image. Then, instead of localizing different salient parts and extracting their features separately, we learn the part representation implicitly by applying a mapping function on the serialized features of the object. Finally, we combine the region attending network and the part sequence learning network into a unified framework that can be trained end-to-end with only image-level labels. Our extensive experiments on three fine-grained benchmarks show that the proposed method achieves the state of the art performance.

* PRCV 2019 

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On the Design of Black-box Adversarial Examples by Leveraging Gradient-free Optimization and Operator Splitting Method

Jul 26, 2019
Pu Zhao, Sijia Liu, Pin-Yu Chen, Nghia Hoang, Kaidi Xu, Bhavya Kailkhura, Xue Lin

Robust machine learning is currently one of the most prominent topics which could potentially help shaping a future of advanced AI platforms that not only perform well in average cases but also in worst cases or adverse situations. Despite the long-term vision, however, existing studies on black-box adversarial attacks are still restricted to very specific settings of threat models (e.g., single distortion metric and restrictive assumption on target model's feedback to queries) and/or suffer from prohibitively high query complexity. To push for further advances in this field, we introduce a general framework based on an operator splitting method, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to devise efficient, robust black-box attacks that work with various distortion metrics and feedback settings without incurring high query complexity. Due to the black-box nature of the threat model, the proposed ADMM solution framework is integrated with zeroth-order (ZO) optimization and Bayesian optimization (BO), and thus is applicable to the gradient-free regime. This results in two new black-box adversarial attack generation methods, ZO-ADMM and BO-ADMM. Our empirical evaluations on image classification datasets show that our proposed approaches have much lower function query complexities compared to state-of-the-art attack methods, but achieve very competitive attack success rates.

* accepted by ICCV 2019 

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Deep Temporal Analysis for Non-Acted Body Affect Recognition

Jul 23, 2019
Danilo Avola, Luigi Cinque, Alessio Fagioli, Gian Luca Foresti, Cristiano Massaroni

Affective computing is a field of great interest in many computer vision applications, including video surveillance, behaviour analysis, and human-robot interaction. Most of the existing literature has addressed this field by analysing different sets of face features. However, in the last decade, several studies have shown how body movements can play a key role even in emotion recognition. The majority of these experiments on the body are performed by trained actors whose aim is to simulate emotional reactions. These unnatural expressions differ from the more challenging genuine emotions, thus invalidating the obtained results. In this paper, a solution for basic non-acted emotion recognition based on 3D skeleton and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) is provided. The proposed work introduces three majors contributions. First, unlike the current state-of-the-art in non-acted body affect recognition, where only static or global body features are considered, in this work also temporal local movements performed by subjects in each frame are examined. Second, an original set of global and time-dependent features for body movement description is provided. Third, to the best of out knowledge, this is the first attempt to use deep learning methods for non-acted body affect recognition. Due to the novelty of the topic, only the UCLIC dataset is currently considered the benchmark for comparative tests. On the latter, the proposed method outperforms all the competitors.

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Real-Time Kinodynamic Motion Planning for Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Soccer using Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree in Dynamic Environment with Moving Obstacles

May 12, 2019
Fahri Ali Rahman, Igi Ardiyanto, Adha Imam Cahyadi

RoboCup Middle Size League (RoboCup MSL) provides a standardized testbed for research on mobile robot navigation, multi-robot cooperation, communication and integration via robot soccer competition in which the environment is highly dynamic and adversarial. One of important research topic in such area is kinodynamic motion planning that plan the trajectory of the robot while avoiding obstacles and obeying its dynamics. Kinodynamic motion planning for omnidirectional robot based on kinodynamic-RRT* method is presented in this work. Trajectory tracking control to execute the planned trajectory is also considered in this work. Robot motion planning in translational and rotational direction are decoupled. Then we implemented kinodynamic-RRT* with double integrator model to plan the translational trajectory. The rotational trajectory is generated using minimum-time trajectory generator satisfying velocity and acceleration constraints. The planned trajectory is then tracked using PI-Control. To address changing environment, we developed concurrent sofware module for motion planning and trajectory tracking. The resulting system were applied and tested using RoboCup simulation system based on Robot Operating System (ROS). The simulation results that the motion planning system are able to generate collision-free trajectory and the trajectory tracking system are able to follow the generated trajectory. It is also shown that in highly dynamic environment the online scheme are able to re-plan the trajectory.

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Learning Phase Competition for Traffic Signal Control

May 12, 2019
Guanjie Zheng, Yuanhao Xiong, Xinshi Zang, Jie Feng, Hua Wei, Huichu Zhang, Yong Li, Kai Xu, Zhenhui Li

Increasingly available city data and advanced learning techniques have empowered people to improve the efficiency of our city functions. Among them, improving the urban transportation efficiency is one of the most prominent topics. Recent studies have proposed to use reinforcement learning (RL) for traffic signal control. Different from traditional transportation approaches which rely heavily on prior knowledge, RL can learn directly from the feedback. On the other side, without a careful model design, existing RL methods typically take a long time to converge and the learned models may not be able to adapt to new scenarios. For example, a model that is trained well for morning traffic may not work for the afternoon traffic because the traffic flow could be reversed, resulting in a very different state representation. In this paper, we propose a novel design called FRAP, which is based on the intuitive principle of phase competition in traffic signal control: when two traffic signals conflict, priority should be given to one with larger traffic movement (i.e., higher demand). Through the phase competition modeling, our model achieves invariance to symmetrical cases such as flipping and rotation in traffic flow. By conducting comprehensive experiments, we demonstrate that our model finds better solutions than existing RL methods in the complicated all-phase selection problem, converges much faster during training, and achieves superior generalizability for different road structures and traffic conditions.

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EV-Action: Electromyography-Vision Multi-Modal Action Dataset

Apr 20, 2019
Lichen Wang, Bin Sun, Joseph Robinson, Taotao Jing, Yun Fu

Multi-modal human motion analysis is a critical and attractive research topic. Most existing multi-modal action datasets only provide visual modalities such as RGB, depth, or low quality skeleton data. In this paper, we introduce a new, large-scale dataset named EV-Action dataset. It consists RGB, depth, electromyography (EMG), and two skeleton modalities. Compared with others, our dataset has two major improvements: (1) we deploy a motion capturing system to obtain high quality skeleton modality, which provides more comprehensive motion information including skeleton, trajectory, and acceleration with higher accuracy, sample frequency, and more skeleton markers. (2) we include an EMG modality. While EMG is used as an effective indicator for biomechanics area, it has yet to be well explored in multimedia, computer vision, and machine learning areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first action dataset with EMG modality. In this paper, we introduce the details of EV-Action dataset. A simple yet effective framework for EMG-based action recognition is proposed. Moreover, we provide state-of-the-art baselines for each modality. The approaches achieve considerable improvements when EMG is involved, and it demonstrates the effectiveness of EMG modality in human action analysis tasks. We hope this dataset could make significant contributions to signal processing, multimedia, computer vision, machine learning, biomechanics, and other interdisciplinary fields.

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Towards Real-time Eyeblink Detection in The Wild:Dataset,Theory and Practices

Feb 21, 2019
Guilei Hu, Yang Xiao, Zhiguo Cao, Lubin Meng, Zhiwen Fang, Joey Tianyi Zhou

Effective and real-time eyeblink detection is of wide-range applications, such as deception detection, drive fatigue detection, face anti-spoofing, etc. Although numerous of efforts have already been paid, most of them focus on addressing the eyeblink detection problem under the constrained indoor conditions with the relative consistent subject and environment setup. Nevertheless, towards the practical applications eyeblink detection in the wild is more required, and of greater challenges. However, to our knowledge this has not been well studied before. In this paper, we shed the light to this research topic. A labelled eyeblink in the wild dataset (i.e., HUST-LEBW) of 673 eyeblink video samples (i.e., 381 positives, and 292 negatives) is first established by us. These samples are captured from the unconstrained movies, with the dramatic variation on human attribute, human pose, illumination condition, imaging configuration, etc. Then, we formulate eyeblink detection task as a spatial-temporal pattern recognition problem. After locating and tracking human eye using SeetaFace engine and KCF tracker respectively, a modified LSTM model able to capture the multi-scale temporal information is proposed to execute eyeblink verification. A feature extraction approach that reveals appearance and motion characteristics simultaneously is also proposed. The experiments on HUST-LEBW reveal the superiority and efficiency of our approach. It also verifies that, the existing eyeblink detection methods cannot achieve satisfactory performance in the wild.

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Unary and Binary Classification Approaches and their Implications for Authorship Verification

Dec 31, 2018
Oren Halvani, Christian Winter, Lukas Graner

Retrieving indexed documents, not by their topical content but their writing style opens the door for a number of applications in information retrieval (IR). One application is to retrieve textual content of a certain author X, where the queried IR system is provided beforehand with a set of reference texts of X. Authorship verification (AV), which is a research subject in the field of digital text forensics, is suitable for this purpose. The task of AV is to determine if two documents (i.e. an indexed and a reference document) have been written by the same author X. Even though AV represents a unary classification problem, a number of existing approaches consider it as a binary classification task. However, the underlying classification model of an AV method has a number of serious implications regarding its prerequisites, evaluability, and applicability. In our comprehensive literature review, we observed several misunderstandings regarding the differentiation of unary and binary AV approaches that require consideration. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to clarify these by proposing clear criteria and new properties that aim to improve the characterization of existing and future AV approaches. Given both, we investigate the applicability of eleven existing unary and binary AV methods as well as four generic unary classification algorithms on two self-compiled corpora. Furthermore, we highlight an important issue concerning the evaluation of AV methods based on fixed decision criterions, which has not been paid attention in previous AV studies.

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Generative Adversarial Active Learning for Unsupervised Outlier Detection

Sep 28, 2018
Yezheng Liu, Zhe Li, Chong Zhou, Yuanchun Jiang, Jianshan Sun, Meng Wang, Xiangnan He

Outlier detection is an important topic in machine learning and has been used in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we approach outlier detection as a binary-classification issue by sampling potential outliers from a uniform reference distribution. However, due to the sparsity of data in high-dimensional space, a limited number of potential outliers may fail to provide sufficient information to assist the classifier in describing a boundary that can separate outliers from normal data effectively. To address this, we propose a novel Single-Objective Generative Adversarial Active Learning (SO-GAAL) method for outlier detection, which can directly generate informative potential outliers based on the mini-max game between a generator and a discriminator. Moreover, to prevent the generator from falling into the mode collapsing problem, the stop node of training should be determined when SO-GAAL is able to provide sufficient information. But without any prior information, it is extremely difficult for SO-GAAL. Therefore, we expand the network structure of SO-GAAL from a single generator to multiple generators with different objectives (MO-GAAL), which can generate a reasonable reference distribution for the whole dataset. We empirically compare the proposed approach with several state-of-the-art outlier detection methods on both synthetic and real-world datasets. The results show that MO-GAAL outperforms its competitors in the majority of cases, especially for datasets with various cluster types or high irrelevant variable ratio.

* submitted to IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 

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