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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Assessing a Single Image in Reference-Guided Image Synthesis

Dec 08, 2021
Jiayi Guo, Chaoqun Du, Jiangshan Wang, Huijuan Huang, Pengfei Wan, Gao Huang

Assessing the performance of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) has been an important topic due to its practical significance. Although several evaluation metrics have been proposed, they generally assess the quality of the whole generated image distribution. For Reference-guided Image Synthesis (RIS) tasks, i.e., rendering a source image in the style of another reference image, where assessing the quality of a single generated image is crucial, these metrics are not applicable. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework, Reference-guided Image Synthesis Assessment (RISA) to quantitatively evaluate the quality of a single generated image. Notably, the training of RISA does not require human annotations. In specific, the training data for RISA are acquired by the intermediate models from the training procedure in RIS, and weakly annotated by the number of models' iterations, based on the positive correlation between image quality and iterations. As this annotation is too coarse as a supervision signal, we introduce two techniques: 1) a pixel-wise interpolation scheme to refine the coarse labels, and 2) multiple binary classifiers to replace a na\"ive regressor. In addition, an unsupervised contrastive loss is introduced to effectively capture the style similarity between a generated image and its reference image. Empirical results on various datasets demonstrate that RISA is highly consistent with human preference and transfers well across models.

* Accepted by AAAI 2022 

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A comment-derived evidence appraisal approach for decision-making using uncertain evidence

Dec 05, 2021
Shuang Wang, Jian Du

Purpose: To explore whether comments could be used as an assistant tool for heuristic decision-making, especially in cases where missing, incomplete, uncertain, or even incorrect evidence is acquired. Methods: Six COVID-19 drug candidates were selected from WHO clinical guidelines. Evidence-comment networks (ECNs) were completed of these six drug candidates based on evidence-comment pairs from all PubMed indexed COVID-19 publications with formal published comments. WHO guidelines were utilized to validate the feasibility of comment-derived evidence assertions as a fast decision supporting tool. Results: Out of 6 drug candidates, comment-derived evidence assertions of leading subgraphs of 5 drugs were consistent with WHO guidelines, and the overall comment sentiment of 6 drugs was aligned with WHO clinical guidelines. Additionally, comment topics were in accordance with the concerns of guidelines and evidence appraisal criteria. Furthermore, half of the critical comments emerged 4.5 months earlier than the date guidelines were published. Conclusions: Comment-derived evidence assertions have the potential as an evidence appraisal tool for heuristic decisions based on the accuracy, sensitivity, and efficiency of evidence-comment networks. In essence, comments reflect that academic communities do have a self-screening evaluation and self-purification (argumentation) mechanism, thus providing a tool for decision makers to filter evidence.


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Learning-Based Strategy Design for Robot-Assisted Reminiscence Therapy Based on a Developed Model for People with Dementia

Sep 06, 2021
Fengpei Yuan, Ran Zhang, Dania Bilal, Xiaopeng Zhao

In this paper, the robot-assisted Reminiscence Therapy (RT) is studied as a psychosocial intervention to persons with dementia (PwDs). We aim at a conversation strategy for the robot by reinforcement learning to stimulate the PwD to talk. Specifically, to characterize the stochastic reactions of a PwD to the robot's actions, a simulation model of a PwD is developed which features the transition probabilities among different PwD states consisting of the response relevance, emotion levels and confusion conditions. A Q-learning (QL) algorithm is then designed to achieve the best conversation strategy for the robot. The objective is to stimulate the PwD to talk as much as possible while keeping the PwD's states as positive as possible. In certain conditions, the achieved strategy gives the PwD choices to continue or change the topic, or stop the conversation, so that the PwD has a sense of control to mitigate the conversation stress. To achieve this, the standard QL algorithm is revised to deliberately integrate the impact of PwD's choices into the Q-value updates. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the learning convergence and validate the efficacy of the achieved strategy. Tests show that the strategy is capable to duly adjust the difficulty level of prompt according to the PwD's states, take actions (e.g., repeat or explain the prompt, or comfort) to help the PwD out of bad states, and allow the PwD to control the conversation tendency when bad states continue.

* 10 pages, conference, 2 figures 

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Evaluation Methodologies for Code Learning Tasks

Aug 22, 2021
Pengyu Nie, Jiyang Zhang, Junyi Jessy Li, Raymond J. Mooney, Milos Gligoric

There has been a growing interest in developing machine learning (ML) models for code learning tasks, e.g., comment generation and method naming. Despite substantial increase in the effectiveness of ML models, the evaluation methodologies, i.e., the way people split datasets into training, validation, and testing sets, were not well designed. Specifically, no prior work on the aforementioned topics considered the timestamps of code and comments during evaluation (e.g., examples in the testing set might be from 2010 and examples from the training set might be from 2020). This may lead to evaluations that are inconsistent with the intended use cases of the ML models. In this paper, we formalize a novel time-segmented evaluation methodology, as well as the two methodologies commonly used in the literature: mixed-project and cross-project. We argue that time-segmented methodology is the most realistic. We also describe various use cases of ML models and provide a guideline for using methodologies to evaluate each use case. To assess the impact of methodologies, we collect a dataset of code-comment pairs with timestamps to train and evaluate several recent code learning ML models for the comment generation and method naming tasks. Our results show that different methodologies can lead to conflicting and inconsistent results. We invite the community to adopt the time-segmented evaluation methodology.


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Learning Implicit User Profiles for Personalized Retrieval-Based Chatbot

Aug 18, 2021
Hongjin Qian, Zhicheng Dou, Yutao Zhu, Yueyuan Ma, Ji-Rong Wen

In this paper, we explore the problem of developing personalized chatbots. A personalized chatbot is designed as a digital chatting assistant for a user. The key characteristic of a personalized chatbot is that it should have a consistent personality with the corresponding user. It can talk the same way as the user when it is delegated to respond to others' messages. We present a retrieval-based personalized chatbot model, namely IMPChat, to learn an implicit user profile from the user's dialogue history. We argue that the implicit user profile is superior to the explicit user profile regarding accessibility and flexibility. IMPChat aims to learn an implicit user profile through modeling user's personalized language style and personalized preferences separately. To learn a user's personalized language style, we elaborately build language models from shallow to deep using the user's historical responses; To model a user's personalized preferences, we explore the conditional relations underneath each post-response pair of the user. The personalized preferences are dynamic and context-aware: we assign higher weights to those historical pairs that are topically related to the current query when aggregating the personalized preferences. We match each response candidate with the personalized language style and personalized preference, respectively, and fuse the two matching signals to determine the final ranking score. Comprehensive experiments on two large datasets show that our method outperforms all baseline models.

* Accepted by CIKM 2021, codes and dataset will be released at https://github.com/qhjqhj00/CIKM2021-IMPChat 

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A Hybrid Decomposition-based Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm for the Multi-Point Dynamic Aggregation Problem

May 11, 2021
Guanqiang Gao, Bin Xin, Yi Mei, Shuxin Ding, Juan Li

An emerging optimisation problem from the real-world applications, named the multi-point dynamic aggregation (MPDA) problem, has become one of the active research topics of the multi-robot system. This paper focuses on a multi-objective MPDA problem which is to design an execution plan of the robots to minimise the number of robots and the maximal completion time of all the tasks. The strongly-coupled relationships among robots and tasks, the redundancy of the MPDA encoding, and the variable-size decision space of the MO-MPDA problem posed extra challenges for addressing the problem effectively. To address the above issues, we develop a hybrid decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (HDMOEA) using $ \varepsilon $-constraint method. It selects the maximal completion time of all tasks as the main objective, and converted the other objective into constraints. HDMOEA decomposes a MO-MPDA problem into a series of scalar constrained optimization subproblems by assigning each subproblem with an upper bound robot number. All the subproblems are optimized simultaneously with the transferring knowledge from other subproblems. Besides, we develop a hybrid population initialisation mechanism to enhance the quality of initial solutions, and a reproduction mechanism to transmit effective information and tackle the encoding redundancy. Experimental results show that the proposed HDMOEA method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of several most-used metrics.


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Auto-Validate: Unsupervised Data Validation Using Data-Domain Patterns Inferred from Data Lakes

Apr 10, 2021
Jie Song, Yeye He

Complex data pipelines are increasingly common in diverse applications such as BI reporting and ML modeling. These pipelines often recur regularly (e.g., daily or weekly), as BI reports need to be refreshed, and ML models need to be retrained. However, it is widely reported that in complex production pipelines, upstream data feeds can change in unexpected ways, causing downstream applications to break silently that are expensive to resolve. Data validation has thus become an important topic, as evidenced by notable recent efforts from Google and Amazon, where the objective is to catch data quality issues early as they arise in the pipelines. Our experience on production data suggests, however, that on string-valued data, these existing approaches yield high false-positive rates and frequently require human intervention. In this work, we develop a corpus-driven approach to auto-validate \emph{machine-generated data} by inferring suitable data-validation "patterns" that accurately describe the underlying data-domain, which minimizes false positives while maximizing data quality issues caught. Evaluations using production data from real data lakes suggest that Auto-Validate is substantially more effective than existing methods. Part of this technology ships as an \textsc{Auto-Tag} feature in \textsc{Microsoft Azure Purview}.

* the full version of a SIGMOD 2021 paper 

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Generalized Organ Segmentation by Imitating One-shot Reasoning using Anatomical Correlation

Mar 30, 2021
Hong-Yu Zhou, Hualuo Liu, Shilei Cao, Dong Wei, Chixiang Lu, Yizhou Yu, Kai Ma, Yefeng Zheng

Learning by imitation is one of the most significant abilities of human beings and plays a vital role in human's computational neural system. In medical image analysis, given several exemplars (anchors), experienced radiologist has the ability to delineate unfamiliar organs by imitating the reasoning process learned from existing types of organs. Inspired by this observation, we propose OrganNet which learns a generalized organ concept from a set of annotated organ classes and then transfer this concept to unseen classes. In this paper, we show that such process can be integrated into the one-shot segmentation task which is a very challenging but meaningful topic. We propose pyramid reasoning modules (PRMs) to model the anatomical correlation between anchor and target volumes. In practice, the proposed module first computes a correlation matrix between target and anchor computerized tomography (CT) volumes. Then, this matrix is used to transform the feature representations of both anchor volume and its segmentation mask. Finally, OrganNet learns to fuse the representations from various inputs and predicts segmentation results for target volume. Extensive experiments show that OrganNet can effectively resist the wide variations in organ morphology and produce state-of-the-art results in one-shot segmentation task. Moreover, even when compared with fully-supervised segmentation models, OrganNet is still able to produce satisfying segmentation results.

* IPMI 2021 

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ADAADepth: Adapting Data Augmentation and Attention for Self-Supervised Monocular Depth Estimation

Mar 01, 2021
Vinay Kaushik, Kartik Jindgar, Brejesh Lall

Self-supervised learning of depth has been a highly studied topic of research as it alleviates the requirement of having ground truth annotations for predicting depth. Depth is learnt as an intermediate solution to the task of view synthesis, utilising warped photometric consistency. Although it gives good results when trained using stereo data, the predicted depth is still sensitive to noise, illumination changes and specular reflections. Also, occlusion can be tackled better by learning depth from a single camera. We propose ADAA, utilising depth augmentation as depth supervision for learning accurate and robust depth. We propose a relational self-attention module that learns rich contextual features and further enhances depth results. We also optimize the auto-masking strategy across all losses by enforcing L1 regularisation over mask. Our novel progressive training strategy first learns depth at a lower resolution and then progresses to the original resolution with slight training. We utilise a ResNet18 encoder, learning features for prediction of both depth and pose. We evaluate our predicted depth on the standard KITTI driving dataset and achieve state-of-the-art results for monocular depth estimation whilst having significantly lower number of trainable parameters in our deep learning framework. We also evaluate our model on Make3D dataset showing better generalization than other methods.

* 8 pages 

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Dynamic Social Media Monitoring for Fast-Evolving Online Discussions

Feb 24, 2021
Maya Srikanth, Anqi Liu, Nicholas Adams-Cohen, Jian Cao, R. Michael Alvarez, Anima Anandkumar

Tracking and collecting fast-evolving online discussions provides vast data for studying social media usage and its role in people's public lives. However, collecting social media data using a static set of keywords fails to satisfy the growing need to monitor dynamic conversations and to study fast-changing topics. We propose a dynamic keyword search method to maximize the coverage of relevant information in fast-evolving online discussions. The method uses word embedding models to represent the semantic relations between keywords and predictive models to forecast the future time series. We also implement a visual user interface to aid in the decision-making process in each round of keyword updates. This allows for both human-assisted tracking and fully-automated data collection. In simulations using historical #MeToo data in 2017, our human-assisted tracking method outperforms the traditional static baseline method significantly, with 37.1% higher F-1 score than traditional static monitors in tracking the top trending keywords. We conduct a contemporary case study to cover dynamic conversations about the recent Presidential Inauguration and to test the dynamic data collection system. Our case studies reflect the effectiveness of our process and also points to the potential challenges in future deployment.

* Preprint, Under Review 

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