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"Topic": models, code, and papers

A flexible outlier detector based on a topology given by graph communities

Feb 18, 2020
O. Ramos Terrades, A. Berenguel, D. Gil

Outlier, or anomaly, detection is essential for optimal performance of machine learning methods and statistical predictive models. It is not just a technical step in a data cleaning process but a key topic in many fields such as fraudulent document detection, in medical applications and assisted diagnosis systems or detecting security threats. In contrast to population-based methods, neighborhood based local approaches are simple flexible methods that have the potential to perform well in small sample size unbalanced problems. However, a main concern of local approaches is the impact that the computation of each sample neighborhood has on the method performance. Most approaches use a distance in the feature space to define a single neighborhood that requires careful selection of several parameters. This work presents a local approach based on a local measure of the heterogeneity of sample labels in the feature space considered as a topological manifold. Topology is computed using the communities of a weighted graph codifying mutual nearest neighbors in the feature space. This way, we provide with a set of multiple neighborhoods able to describe the structure of complex spaces without parameter fine tuning. The extensive experiments on real-world data sets show that our approach overall outperforms, both, local and global strategies in multi and single view settings.

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Multi-view consensus CNN for 3D facial landmark placement

Oct 14, 2019
Rasmus R. Paulsen, Kristine Aavild Juhl, Thilde Marie Haspang, Thomas Hansen, Melanie Ganz, Gudmundur Einarsson

The rapid increase in the availability of accurate 3D scanning devices has moved facial recognition and analysis into the 3D domain. 3D facial landmarks are often used as a simple measure of anatomy and it is crucial to have accurate algorithms for automatic landmark placement. The current state-of-the-art approaches have yet to gain from the dramatic increase in performance reported in human pose tracking and 2D facial landmark placement due to the use of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). Development of deep learning approaches for 3D meshes has given rise to the new subfield called geometric deep learning, where one topic is the adaptation of meshes for the use of deep CNNs. In this work, we demonstrate how methods derived from geometric deep learning, namely multi-view CNNs, can be combined with recent advances in human pose tracking. The method finds 2D landmark estimates and propagates this information to 3D space, where a consensus method determines the accurate 3D face landmark position. We utilise the method on a standard 3D face dataset and show that it outperforms current methods by a large margin. Further, we demonstrate how models trained on 3D range scans can be used to accurately place anatomical landmarks in magnetic resonance images.

* Proceedings of the asian conference on computer vision 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11361. Springer 
* This is a pre-print of an article published in proceedings of the asian conference on computer vision 2018 (LNCS 11361). The final authenticated version is available online at: 

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Neural-Symbolic Computing: An Effective Methodology for Principled Integration of Machine Learning and Reasoning

May 15, 2019
Artur d'Avila Garcez, Marco Gori, Luis C. Lamb, Luciano Serafini, Michael Spranger, Son N. Tran

Current advances in Artificial Intelligence and machine learning in general, and deep learning in particular have reached unprecedented impact not only across research communities, but also over popular media channels. However, concerns about interpretability and accountability of AI have been raised by influential thinkers. In spite of the recent impact of AI, several works have identified the need for principled knowledge representation and reasoning mechanisms integrated with deep learning-based systems to provide sound and explainable models for such systems. Neural-symbolic computing aims at integrating, as foreseen by Valiant, two most fundamental cognitive abilities: the ability to learn from the environment, and the ability to reason from what has been learned. Neural-symbolic computing has been an active topic of research for many years, reconciling the advantages of robust learning in neural networks and reasoning and interpretability of symbolic representation. In this paper, we survey recent accomplishments of neural-symbolic computing as a principled methodology for integrated machine learning and reasoning. We illustrate the effectiveness of the approach by outlining the main characteristics of the methodology: principled integration of neural learning with symbolic knowledge representation and reasoning allowing for the construction of explainable AI systems. The insights provided by neural-symbolic computing shed new light on the increasingly prominent need for interpretable and accountable AI systems.

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Visualizing and Understanding Generative Adversarial Networks (Extended Abstract)

Jan 29, 2019
David Bau, Jun-Yan Zhu, Hendrik Strobelt, Bolei Zhou, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, William T. Freeman, Antonio Torralba

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have achieved impressive results for many real-world applications. As an active research topic, many GAN variants have emerged with improvements in sample quality and training stability. However, visualization and understanding of GANs is largely missing. How does a GAN represent our visual world internally? What causes the artifacts in GAN results? How do architectural choices affect GAN learning? Answering such questions could enable us to develop new insights and better models. In this work, we present an analytic framework to visualize and understand GANs at the unit-, object-, and scene-level. We first identify a group of interpretable units that are closely related to concepts with a segmentation-based network dissection method. We quantify the causal effect of interpretable units by measuring the ability of interventions to control objects in the output. Finally, we examine the contextual relationship between these units and their surrounding by inserting the discovered concepts into new images. We show several practical applications enabled by our framework, from comparing internal representations across different layers, models, and datasets, to improving GANs by locating and removing artifact-causing units, to interactively manipulating objects in the scene. We will open source our interactive tools to help researchers and practitioners better understand their models.

* In AAAI-19 workshop on Network Interpretability for Deep Learning arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1811.10597 

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Interpretable Active Learning

Jun 24, 2018
Richard L. Phillips, Kyu Hyun Chang, Sorelle A. Friedler

Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. We demonstrate how LIME can be used to generate locally faithful explanations for an active learning strategy, and how these explanations can be used to understand how different models and datasets explore a problem space over time. In order to quantify the per-subgroup differences in how an active learning strategy queries spatial regions, we introduce a notion of uncertainty bias (based on disparate impact) to measure the discrepancy in the confidence for a model's predictions between one subgroup and another. Using the uncertainty bias measure, we show that our query explanations accurately reflect the subgroup focus of the active learning queries, allowing for an interpretable explanation of what is being learned as points with similar sources of uncertainty have their uncertainty bias resolved. We demonstrate that this technique can be applied to track uncertainty bias over user-defined clusters or automatically generated clusters based on the source of uncertainty.

* 13 pages, 8 figures, presented at 2018 Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAT*), New York, New York, USA. Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency, PMLR 81:49-61, 2018 

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Relocalization, Global Optimization and Map Merging for Monocular Visual-Inertial SLAM

Mar 05, 2018
Tong Qin, Perliang Li, Shaojie Shen

The monocular visual-inertial system (VINS), which consists one camera and one low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU), is a popular approach to achieve accurate 6-DOF state estimation. However, such locally accurate visual-inertial odometry is prone to drift and cannot provide absolute pose estimation. Leveraging history information to relocalize and correct drift has become a hot topic. In this paper, we propose a monocular visual-inertial SLAM system, which can relocalize camera and get the absolute pose in a previous-built map. Then 4-DOF pose graph optimization is performed to correct drifts and achieve global consistent. The 4-DOF contains x, y, z, and yaw angle, which is the actual drifted direction in the visual-inertial system. Furthermore, the proposed system can reuse a map by saving and loading it in an efficient way. Current map and previous map can be merged together by the global pose graph optimization. We validate the accuracy of our system on public datasets and compare against other state-of-the-art algorithms. We also evaluate the map merging ability of our system in the large-scale outdoor environment. The source code of map reuse is integrated into our public code, VINS-Mono.

* 8 pages 

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Neural Distributed Autoassociative Memories: A Survey

Sep 04, 2017
V. I. Gritsenko, D. A. Rachkovskij, A. A. Frolov, R. Gayler, D. Kleyko, E. Osipov

Introduction. Neural network models of autoassociative, distributed memory allow storage and retrieval of many items (vectors) where the number of stored items can exceed the vector dimension (the number of neurons in the network). This opens the possibility of a sublinear time search (in the number of stored items) for approximate nearest neighbors among vectors of high dimension. The purpose of this paper is to review models of autoassociative, distributed memory that can be naturally implemented by neural networks (mainly with local learning rules and iterative dynamics based on information locally available to neurons). Scope. The survey is focused mainly on the networks of Hopfield, Willshaw and Potts, that have connections between pairs of neurons and operate on sparse binary vectors. We discuss not only autoassociative memory, but also the generalization properties of these networks. We also consider neural networks with higher-order connections and networks with a bipartite graph structure for non-binary data with linear constraints. Conclusions. In conclusion we discuss the relations to similarity search, advantages and drawbacks of these techniques, and topics for further research. An interesting and still not completely resolved question is whether neural autoassociative memories can search for approximate nearest neighbors faster than other index structures for similarity search, in particular for the case of very high dimensional vectors.

* Cybernetics and Computer Engineering, 2017. 2(188), 5-35 
* 31 pages 

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A Domain Based Approach to Social Relation Recognition

Apr 21, 2017
Qianru Sun, Bernt Schiele, Mario Fritz

Social relations are the foundation of human daily life. Developing techniques to analyze such relations from visual data bears great potential to build machines that better understand us and are capable of interacting with us at a social level. Previous investigations have remained partial due to the overwhelming diversity and complexity of the topic and consequently have only focused on a handful of social relations. In this paper, we argue that the domain-based theory from social psychology is a great starting point to systematically approach this problem. The theory provides coverage of all aspects of social relations and equally is concrete and predictive about the visual attributes and behaviors defining the relations included in each domain. We provide the first dataset built on this holistic conceptualization of social life that is composed of a hierarchical label space of social domains and social relations. We also contribute the first models to recognize such domains and relations and find superior performance for attribute based features. Beyond the encouraging performance of the attribute based approach, we also find interpretable features that are in accordance with the predictions from social psychology literature. Beyond our findings, we believe that our contributions more tightly interleave visual recognition and social psychology theory that has the potential to complement the theoretical work in the area with empirical and data-driven models of social life.

* To appear in CVPR 2017 

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Multi-level Contextual RNNs with Attention Model for Scene Labeling

Aug 10, 2016
Heng Fan, Xue Mei, Danil Prokhorov, Haibin Ling

Context in image is crucial for scene labeling while existing methods only exploit local context generated from a small surrounding area of an image patch or a pixel, by contrast long-range and global contextual information is ignored. To handle this issue, we in this work propose a novel approach for scene labeling by exploring multi-level contextual recurrent neural networks (ML-CRNNs). Specifically, we encode three kinds of contextual cues, i.e., local context, global context and image topic context in structural recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to model long-range local and global dependencies in image. In this way, our method is able to `see' the image in terms of both long-range local and holistic views, and make a more reliable inference for image labeling. Besides, we integrate the proposed contextual RNNs into hierarchical convolutional neural networks (CNNs), and exploit dependence relationships in multiple levels to provide rich spatial and semantic information. Moreover, we novelly adopt an attention model to effectively merge multiple levels and show that it outperforms average- or max-pooling fusion strategies. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves new state-of-the-art results on the CamVid, SiftFlow and Stanford-background datasets.

* 8 pages, 8 figures 

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Is Faster R-CNN Doing Well for Pedestrian Detection?

Jul 27, 2016
Liliang Zhang, Liang Lin, Xiaodan Liang, Kaiming He

Detecting pedestrian has been arguably addressed as a special topic beyond general object detection. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN [1, 2] have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for detecting pedestrian, and previous leading pedestrian detectors were in general hybrid methods combining hand-crafted and deep convolutional features. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Faster R-CNN [2] for pedestrian detection. We discover that the Region Proposal Network (RPN) in Faster R-CNN indeed performs well as a stand-alone pedestrian detector, but surprisingly, the downstream classifier degrades the results. We argue that two reasons account for the unsatisfactory accuracy: (i) insufficient resolution of feature maps for handling small instances, and (ii) lack of any bootstrapping strategy for mining hard negative examples. Driven by these observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection, using an RPN followed by boosted forests on shared, high-resolution convolutional feature maps. We comprehensively evaluate this method on several benchmarks (Caltech, INRIA, ETH, and KITTI), presenting competitive accuracy and good speed. Code will be made publicly available.

* To appear in ECCV 2016, 15 pages, 5 figures (v2: fixed some typos) 

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