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"Topic": models, code, and papers

CSFCube -- A Test Collection of Computer Science Research Articles for Faceted Query by Example

Mar 24, 2021
Sheshera Mysore, Tim O'Gorman, Andrew McCallum, Hamed Zamani

Query by Example is a well-known information retrieval task in which a document is chosen by the user as the search query and the goal is to retrieve relevant documents from a large collection. However, a document often covers multiple aspects of a topic. To address this scenario we introduce the task of faceted Query by Example in which users can also specify a finer grained aspect in addition to the input query document. We focus on the application of this task in scientific literature search. We envision models which are able to retrieve scientific papers analogous to a query scientific paper along specifically chosen rhetorical structure elements as one solution to this problem. In this work, the rhetorical structure elements, which we refer to as facets, indicate "background", "method", or "result" aspects of a scientific paper. We introduce and describe an expert annotated test collection to evaluate models trained to perform this task. Our test collection consists of a diverse set of 50 query documents, drawn from computational linguistics and machine learning venues. We carefully followed the annotation guideline used by TREC for depth-k pooling (k = 100 or 250) and the resulting data collection consists of graded relevance scores with high annotation agreement. The data is freely available for research purposes.

* Submitted for single-blind review at the SIGIR 2021 Resource Track 

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Powering COVID-19 community Q&A with Curated Side Information

Jan 27, 2021
Manisha Verma, Kapil Thadani, Shaunak Mishra

Community question answering and discussion platforms such as Reddit, Yahoo! answers or Quora provide users the flexibility of asking open ended questions to a large audience, and replies to such questions maybe useful both to the user and the community on certain topics such as health, sports or finance. Given the recent events around COVID-19, some of these platforms have attracted 2000+ questions from users about several aspects associated with the disease. Given the impact of this disease on general public, in this work we investigate ways to improve the ranking of user generated answers on COVID-19. We specifically explore the utility of external technical sources of side information (such as CDC guidelines or WHO FAQs) in improving answer ranking on such platforms. We found that ranking user answers based on question-answer similarity is not sufficient, and existing models cannot effectively exploit external (side) information. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of different attention based neural models that can directly exploit side information available in technical documents or verified forums (e.g., research publications on COVID-19 or WHO website). Augmented with a temperature mechanism, the attention based neural models can selectively determine the relevance of side information for a given user question, while ranking answers.

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Granular conditional entropy-based attribute reduction for partially labeled data with proxy labels

Jan 23, 2021
Can Gao, Jie Zhoua, Duoqian Miao, Xiaodong Yue, Jun Wan

Attribute reduction is one of the most important research topics in the theory of rough sets, and many rough sets-based attribute reduction methods have thus been presented. However, most of them are specifically designed for dealing with either labeled data or unlabeled data, while many real-world applications come in the form of partial supervision. In this paper, we propose a rough sets-based semi-supervised attribute reduction method for partially labeled data. Particularly, with the aid of prior class distribution information about data, we first develop a simple yet effective strategy to produce the proxy labels for unlabeled data. Then the concept of information granularity is integrated into the information-theoretic measure, based on which, a novel granular conditional entropy measure is proposed, and its monotonicity is proved in theory. Furthermore, a fast heuristic algorithm is provided to generate the optimal reduct of partially labeled data, which could accelerate the process of attribute reduction by removing irrelevant examples and excluding redundant attributes simultaneously. Extensive experiments conducted on UCI data sets demonstrate that the proposed semi-supervised attribute reduction method is promising and even compares favourably with the supervised methods on labeled data and unlabeled data with true labels in terms of classification performance.

* 22 pages, 5 figures, and 5 tables. Preprint submitted to Information Sciences 

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FDMT: A Benchmark Dataset for Fine-grained Domain Adaptation in Machine Translation

Dec 31, 2020
Wenhao Zhu, Shujian Huang, Tong Pu, Xu Zhang, Jian Yu, Wei Chen, Yanfeng Wang, Jiajun Chen

Previous domain adaptation research usually neglect the diversity in translation within a same domain, which is a core problem for adapting a general neural machine translation (NMT) model into a specific domain in real-world scenarios. One representative of such challenging scenarios is to deploy a translation system for a conference with a specific topic, e.g. computer networks or natural language processing, where there is usually extremely less resources due to the limited time schedule. To motivate a wide investigation in such settings, we present a real-world fine-grained domain adaptation task in machine translation (FDMT). The FDMT dataset (Zh-En) consists of four sub-domains of information technology: autonomous vehicles, AI education, real-time networks and smart phone. To be closer to reality, FDMT does not employ any in-domain bilingual training data. Instead, each sub-domain is equipped with monolingual data, bilingual dictionary and knowledge base, to encourage in-depth exploration of these available resources. Corresponding development set and test set are provided for evaluation purpose. We make quantitative experiments and deep analyses in this new setting, which benchmarks the fine-grained domain adaptation task and reveals several challenging problems that need to be addressed.

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RIN: Textured Human Model Recovery and Imitation with a Single Image

Nov 29, 2020
Haoxi Ran, Guangfu Wang, Li Lu

Human imitation has become topical recently, driven by GAN's ability to disentangle human pose and body content. However, the latest methods hardly focus on 3D information, and to avoid self-occlusion, a massive amount of input images are needed. In this paper, we propose RIN, a novel volume-based framework for reconstructing a textured 3D model from a single picture and imitating a subject with the generated model. Specifically, to estimate most of the human texture, we propose a U-Net-like front-to-back translation network. With both front and back images input, the textured volume recovery module allows us to color a volumetric human. A sequence of 3D poses then guides the colored volume via Flowable Disentangle Networks as a volume-to-volume translation task. To project volumes to a 2D plane during training, we design a differentiable depth-aware renderer. Our experiments demonstrate that our volume-based model is adequate for human imitation, and the back view can be estimated reliably using our network. While prior works based on either 2D pose or semantic map often fail for the unstable appearance of a human, our framework can still produce concrete results, which are competitive to those imagined from multi-view input.

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Unpaired Deep Learning for Accelerated MRI using Optimal Transport Driven CycleGAN

Aug 29, 2020
Gyutaek Oh, Byeongsu Sim, Hyungjin Chung, Leonard Sunwoo, Jong Chul Ye

Recently, deep learning approaches for accelerated MRI have been extensively studied thanks to their high performance reconstruction in spite of significantly reduced runtime complexity. These neural networks are usually trained in a supervised manner, so matched pairs of subsampled and fully sampled k-space data are required. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to acquire matched fully sampled k-space data, since the acquisition of fully sampled k-space data requires long scan time and often leads to the change of the acquisition protocol. Therefore, unpaired deep learning without matched label data has become a very important research topic. In this paper, we propose an unpaired deep learning approach using a optimal transport driven cycle-consistent generative adversarial network (OT-cycleGAN) that employs a single pair of generator and discriminator. The proposed OT-cycleGAN architecture is rigorously derived from a dual formulation of the optimal transport formulation using a specially designed penalized least squares cost. The experimental results show that our method can reconstruct high resolution MR images from accelerated k- space data from both single and multiple coil acquisition, without requiring matched reference data.

* Accepted for IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging 

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Creativity in the era of artificial intelligence

Aug 13, 2020
Philippe Esling, Ninon Devis

Creativity is a deeply debated topic, as this concept is arguably quintessential to our humanity. Across different epochs, it has been infused with an extensive variety of meanings relevant to that era. Along these, the evolution of technology have provided a plurality of novel tools for creative purposes. Recently, the advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI), through deep learning approaches, have seen proficient successes across various applications. The use of such technologies for creativity appear in a natural continuity to the artistic trend of this century. However, the aura of a technological artefact labeled as intelligent has unleashed passionate and somewhat unhinged debates on its implication for creative endeavors. In this paper, we aim to provide a new perspective on the question of creativity at the era of AI, by blurring the frontier between social and computational sciences. To do so, we rely on reflections from social science studies of creativity to view how current AI would be considered through this lens. As creativity is a highly context-prone concept, we underline the limits and deficiencies of current AI, requiring to move towards artificial creativity. We argue that the objective of trying to purely mimic human creative traits towards a self-contained ex-nihilo generative machine would be highly counterproductive, putting us at risk of not harnessing the almost unlimited possibilities offered by the sheer computational power of artificial agents.

* Keynote paper - JIM Conference 2020 - 12 pages 

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Using UNet and PSPNet to explore the reusability principle of CNN parameters

Aug 08, 2020
Wei Wang

How to reduce the requirement on training dataset size is a hot topic in deep learning community. One straightforward way is to reuse some pre-trained parameters. Some previous work like Deep transfer learning reuse the model parameters trained for the first task as the starting point for the second task, and semi-supervised learning is trained upon a combination of labeled and unlabeled data. However, the fundamental reason of the success of these methods is unclear. In this paper, the reusability of parameters in each layer of a deep convolutional neural network is experimentally quantified by using a network to do segmentation and auto-encoder task. This paper proves that network parameters can be reused for two reasons: first, the network features are general; Second, there is little difference between the pre-trained parameters and the ideal network parameters. Through the use of parameter replacement and comparison, we demonstrate that reusability is different in BN(Batch Normalization)[7] layer and Convolution layer and some observations: (1)Running mean and running variance plays an important role than Weight and Bias in BN layer.(2)The weight and bias can be reused in BN layers.( 3) The network is very sensitive to the weight of convolutional layer.(4) The bias in Convolution layers are not sensitive, and it can be reused directly.

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Can Adversarial Weight Perturbations Inject Neural Backdoors?

Aug 04, 2020
Siddhant Garg, Adarsh Kumar, Vibhor Goel, Yingyu Liang

Adversarial machine learning has exposed several security hazards of neural models and has become an important research topic in recent times. Thus far, the concept of an "adversarial perturbation" has exclusively been used with reference to the input space referring to a small, imperceptible change which can cause a ML model to err. In this work we extend the idea of "adversarial perturbations" to the space of model weights, specifically to inject backdoors in trained DNNs, which exposes a security risk of using publicly available trained models. Here, injecting a backdoor refers to obtaining a desired outcome from the model when a trigger pattern is added to the input, while retaining the original model predictions on a non-triggered input. From the perspective of an adversary, we characterize these adversarial perturbations to be constrained within an $\ell_{\infty}$ norm around the original model weights. We introduce adversarial perturbations in the model weights using a composite loss on the predictions of the original model and the desired trigger through projected gradient descent. We empirically show that these adversarial weight perturbations exist universally across several computer vision and natural language processing tasks. Our results show that backdoors can be successfully injected with a very small average relative change in model weight values for several applications.

* Accepted as a conference paper at CIKM 2020 

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Learning enables adaptation in cooperation for multi-player stochastic games

Jul 29, 2020
Feng Huang, Ming Cao, Long Wang

Interactions among individuals in natural populations often occur in a dynamically changing environment. Understanding the role of environmental variation in population dynamics has long been a central topic in theoretical ecology and population biology. However, the key question of how individuals, in the middle of challenging social dilemmas (e.g., the "tragedy of the commons"), modulate their behaviors to adapt to the fluctuation of the environment has not yet been addressed satisfactorily. Utilizing evolutionary game theory and stochastic games, we develop a game-theoretical framework that incorporates the adaptive mechanism of reinforcement learning to investigate whether cooperative behaviors can evolve in the ever-changing group interaction environment. When the action choices of players are just slightly influenced by past reinforcements, we construct an analytical condition to determine whether cooperation can be favored over defection. Intuitively, this condition reveals why and how the environment can mediate cooperative dilemmas. Under our model architecture, we also compare this learning mechanism with two non-learning decision rules, and we find that learning significantly improves the propensity for cooperation in weak social dilemmas, and, in sharp contrast, hinders cooperation in strong social dilemmas. Our results suggest that in complex social-ecological dilemmas, learning enables the adaptation of individuals to varying environments.

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