High quality energy systems information is a crucial input to energy systems research, modeling, and decision-making. Unfortunately, precise information about energy systems is often of limited availability, incomplete, or only accessible for a substantial fee or through a non-disclosure agreement. Recently, remotely sensed data (e.g., satellite imagery, aerial photography) have emerged as a potentially rich source of energy systems information. However, the use of these data is frequently challenged by its sheer volume and complexity, precluding manual analysis. Recent breakthroughs in machine learning have enabled automated and rapid extraction of useful information from remotely sensed data, facilitating large-scale acquisition of critical energy system variables. Here we present a systematic review of the literature on this emerging topic, providing an in-depth survey and review of papers published within the past two decades. We first taxonomize the existing literature into ten major areas, spanning the energy value chain. Within each research area, we distill and critically discuss major features that are relevant to energy researchers, including, for example, key challenges regarding the accessibility and reliability of the methods. We then synthesize our findings to identify limitations and trends in the literature as a whole, and discuss opportunities for innovation.
Algorithms and Machine Learning (ML) are increasingly affecting everyday life and several decision-making processes, where ML has an advantage due to scalability or superior performance. Fairness in such applications is crucial, where models should not discriminate their results based on race, gender, or other protected groups. This is especially crucial for models affecting very sensitive topics, like interview hiring or recidivism prediction. Fairness is not commonly studied for regression problems compared to binary classification problems; hence, we present a simple, yet effective method based on normalisation (FaiReg), which minimises the impact of unfairness in regression problems, especially due to labelling bias. We present a theoretical analysis of the method, in addition to an empirical comparison against two standard methods for fairness, namely data balancing and adversarial training. We also include a hybrid formulation (FaiRegH), merging the presented method with data balancing, in an attempt to face labelling and sample biases simultaneously. The experiments are conducted on the multimodal dataset First Impressions (FI) with various labels, namely personality prediction and interview screening score. The results show the superior performance of diminishing the effects of unfairness better than data balancing, also without deteriorating the performance of the original problem as much as adversarial training.
Deep-learning methods offer unsurpassed recognition performance in a wide range of domains, including fine-grained recognition tasks. However, in most problem areas there are insufficient annotated training samples. Therefore, the topic of transfer learning respectively domain adaptation is particularly important. In this work, we investigate to what extent unsupervised domain adaptation can be used for fine-grained recognition in a biodiversity context to learn a real-world classifier based on idealized training data, e.g. preserved butterflies and plants. Moreover, we investigate the influence of different normalization layers, such as Group Normalization in combination with Weight Standardization, on the classifier. We discovered that domain adaptation works very well for fine-grained recognition and that the normalization methods have a great influence on the results. Using domain adaptation and Transferable Normalization, the accuracy of the classifier could be increased by up to 12.35 % compared to the baseline. Furthermore, the domain adaptation system is combined with an active learning component to improve the results. We compare different active learning strategies with each other. Surprisingly, we found that more sophisticated strategies provide better results than the random selection baseline for only one of the two datasets. In this case, the distance and diversity strategy performed best. Finally, we present a problem analysis of the datasets.
In translating text where sentiment is the main message, human translators give particular attention to sentiment-carrying words. The reason is that an incorrect translation of such words would miss the fundamental aspect of the source text, i.e. the author's sentiment. In the online world, MT systems are extensively used to translate User-Generated Content (UGC) such as reviews, tweets, and social media posts, where the main message is often the author's positive or negative attitude towards the topic of the text. It is important in such scenarios to accurately measure how far an MT system can be a reliable real-life utility in transferring the correct affect message. This paper tackles an under-recognised problem in the field of machine translation evaluation which is judging to what extent automatic metrics concur with the gold standard of human evaluation for a correct translation of sentiment. We evaluate the efficacy of conventional quality metrics in spotting a mistranslation of sentiment, especially when it is the sole error in the MT output. We propose a numerical `sentiment-closeness' measure appropriate for assessing the accuracy of a translated affect message in UGC text by an MT system. We will show that incorporating this sentiment-aware measure can significantly enhance the correlation of some available quality metrics with the human judgement of an accurate translation of sentiment.
Variational Bayes (VB) applied to latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) has become the most popular algorithm for aspect modeling. While sufficiently successful in text topic extraction from large corpora, VB is less successful in identifying aspects in the presence of limited data. We present a novel variational message passing algorithm as applied to Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and compare it with the gold standard VB and collapsed Gibbs sampling. In situations where marginalisation leads to non-conjugate messages, we use ideas from sampling to derive approximate update equations. In cases where conjugacy holds, Loopy Belief update (LBU) (also known as Lauritzen-Spiegelhalter) is used. Our algorithm, ALBU (approximate LBU), has strong similarities with Variational Message Passing (VMP) (which is the message passing variant of VB). To compare the performance of the algorithms in the presence of limited data, we use data sets consisting of tweets and news groups. Additionally, to perform more fine grained evaluations and comparisons, we use simulations that enable comparisons with the ground truth via Kullback-Leibler divergence (KLD). Using coherence measures for the text corpora and KLD with the simulations we show that ALBU learns latent distributions more accurately than does VB, especially for smaller data sets.
Prohibited items detection in X-ray images often plays an important role in protecting public safety, which often deals with color-monotonous and luster-insufficient objects, resulting in unsatisfactory performance. Till now, there have been rare studies touching this topic due to the lack of specialized high-quality datasets. In this work, we first present a High-quality X-ray (HiXray) security inspection image dataset, which contains 102,928 common prohibited items of 8 categories. It is the largest dataset of high quality for prohibited items detection, gathered from the real-world airport security inspection and annotated by professional security inspectors. Besides, for accurate prohibited item detection, we further propose the Lateral Inhibition Module (LIM) inspired by the fact that humans recognize these items by ignoring irrelevant information and focusing on identifiable characteristics, especially when objects are overlapped with each other. Specifically, LIM, the elaborately designed flexible additional module, suppresses the noisy information flowing maximumly by the Bidirectional Propagation (BP) module and activates the most identifiable charismatic, boundary, from four directions by Boundary Activation (BA) module. We evaluate our method extensively on HiXray and OPIXray and the results demonstrate that it outperforms SOTA detection methods.
Generative Adversarial Network, as a promising research direction in the AI community, recently attracts considerable attention due to its ability to generating high-quality realistic data. GANs are a competing game between two neural networks trained in an adversarial manner to reach a Nash equilibrium. Despite the improvement accomplished in GANs in the last years, there remain several issues to solve. In this way, how to tackle these issues and make advances leads to rising research interests. This paper reviews literature that leverages the game theory in GANs and addresses how game models can relieve specific generative models' challenges and improve the GAN's performance. In particular, we firstly review some preliminaries, including the basic GAN model and some game theory backgrounds. After that, we present our taxonomy to summarize the state-of-the-art solutions into three significant categories: modified game model, modified architecture, and modified learning method. The classification is based on the modifications made in the basic model by the proposed approaches from the game-theoretic perspective. We further classify each category into several subcategories. Following the proposed taxonomy, we explore the main objective of each class and review the recent work in each group. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges in this field and present the potential future research topics.
Face synthesis, including face aging, in particular, has been one of the major topics that witnessed a substantial improvement in image fidelity by using generative adversarial networks (GANs). Most existing face aging approaches divide the dataset into several age groups and leverage group-based training strategies, which lacks the ability to provide fine-controlled continuous aging synthesis in nature. In this work, we propose a unified network structure that embeds a linear age estimator into a GAN-based model, where the embedded age estimator is trained jointly with the encoder and decoder to estimate the age of a face image and provide a personalized target age embedding for age progression/regression. The personalized target age embedding is synthesized by incorporating both personalized residual age embedding of the current age and exemplar-face aging basis of the target age, where all preceding aging bases are derived from the learned weights of the linear age estimator. This formulation brings the unified perspective of estimating the age and generating personalized aged face, where self-estimated age embeddings can be learned for every single age. The qualitative and quantitative evaluations on different datasets further demonstrate the significant improvement in the continuous face aging aspect over the state-of-the-art.
Query by Example is a well-known information retrieval task in which a document is chosen by the user as the search query and the goal is to retrieve relevant documents from a large collection. However, a document often covers multiple aspects of a topic. To address this scenario we introduce the task of faceted Query by Example in which users can also specify a finer grained aspect in addition to the input query document. We focus on the application of this task in scientific literature search. We envision models which are able to retrieve scientific papers analogous to a query scientific paper along specifically chosen rhetorical structure elements as one solution to this problem. In this work, the rhetorical structure elements, which we refer to as facets, indicate "background", "method", or "result" aspects of a scientific paper. We introduce and describe an expert annotated test collection to evaluate models trained to perform this task. Our test collection consists of a diverse set of 50 query documents, drawn from computational linguistics and machine learning venues. We carefully followed the annotation guideline used by TREC for depth-k pooling (k = 100 or 250) and the resulting data collection consists of graded relevance scores with high annotation agreement. The data is freely available for research purposes.