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Mental Disorders on Online Social Media Through the Lens of Language and Behaviour: Analysis and Visualisation

Feb 07, 2022
Esteban A. Ríssola, Mohammad Aliannejadi, Fabio Crestani

Due to the worldwide accessibility to the Internet along with the continuous advances in mobile technologies, physical and digital worlds have become completely blended, and the proliferation of social media platforms has taken a leading role over this evolution. In this paper, we undertake a thorough analysis towards better visualising and understanding the factors that characterise and differentiate social media users affected by mental disorders. We perform different experiments studying multiple dimensions of language, including vocabulary uniqueness, word usage, linguistic style, psychometric attributes, emotions' co-occurrence patterns, and online behavioural traits, including social engagement and posting trends. Our findings reveal significant differences on the use of function words, such as adverbs and verb tense, and topic-specific vocabulary, such as biological processes. As for emotional expression, we observe that affected users tend to share emotions more regularly than control individuals on average. Overall, the monthly posting variance of the affected groups is higher than the control groups. Moreover, we found evidence suggesting that language use on micro-blogging platforms is less distinguishable for users who have a mental disorder than other less restrictive platforms. In particular, we observe on Twitter less quantifiable differences between affected and control groups compared to Reddit.

* To appear in Elsevier Information Processing & Management 

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HashSet -- A Dataset For Hashtag Segmentation

Jan 18, 2022
Prashant Kodali, Akshala Bhatnagar, Naman Ahuja, Manish Shrivastava, Ponnurangam Kumaraguru

Hashtag segmentation is the task of breaking a hashtag into its constituent tokens. Hashtags often encode the essence of user-generated posts, along with information like topic and sentiment, which are useful in downstream tasks. Hashtags prioritize brevity and are written in unique ways -- transliterating and mixing languages, spelling variations, creative named entities. Benchmark datasets used for the hashtag segmentation task -- STAN, BOUN -- are small in size and extracted from a single set of tweets. However, datasets should reflect the variations in writing styles of hashtags and also account for domain and language specificity, failing which the results will misrepresent model performance. We argue that model performance should be assessed on a wider variety of hashtags, and datasets should be carefully curated. To this end, we propose HashSet, a dataset comprising of: a) 1.9k manually annotated dataset; b) 3.3M loosely supervised dataset. HashSet dataset is sampled from a different set of tweets when compared to existing datasets and provides an alternate distribution of hashtags to build and validate hashtag segmentation models. We show that the performance of SOTA models for Hashtag Segmentation drops substantially on proposed dataset, indicating that the proposed dataset provides an alternate set of hashtags to train and assess models.


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An Exact Algorithm for Semi-supervised Minimum Sum-of-Squares Clustering

Nov 30, 2021
Veronica Piccialli, Anna Russo Russo, Antonio M. Sudoso

The minimum sum-of-squares clustering (MSSC), or k-means type clustering, is traditionally considered an unsupervised learning task. In recent years, the use of background knowledge to improve the cluster quality and promote interpretability of the clustering process has become a hot research topic at the intersection of mathematical optimization and machine learning research. The problem of taking advantage of background information in data clustering is called semi-supervised or constrained clustering. In this paper, we present a new branch-and-bound algorithm for semi-supervised MSSC, where background knowledge is incorporated as pairwise must-link and cannot-link constraints. For the lower bound procedure, we solve the semidefinite programming relaxation of the MSSC discrete optimization model, and we use a cutting-plane procedure for strengthening the bound. For the upper bound, instead, by using integer programming tools, we propose an adaptation of the k-means algorithm to the constrained case. For the first time, the proposed global optimization algorithm efficiently manages to solve real-world instances up to 800 data points with different combinations of must-link and cannot-link constraints and with a generic number of features. This problem size is about four times larger than the one of the instances solved by state-of-the-art exact algorithms.


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Social Media Reveals Urban-Rural Differences in Stress across China

Nov 03, 2021
Jesse Cui, Tingdan Zhang, Kokil Jaidka, Dandan Pang, Garrick Sherman, Vinit Jakhetiya, Lyle Ungar, Sharath Chandra Guntuku

Modeling differential stress expressions in urban and rural regions in China can provide a better understanding of the effects of urbanization on psychological well-being in a country that has rapidly grown economically in the last two decades. This paper studies linguistic differences in the experiences and expressions of stress in urban-rural China from Weibo posts from over 65,000 users across 329 counties using hierarchical mixed-effects models. We analyzed phrases, topical themes, and psycho-linguistic word choices in Weibo posts mentioning stress to better understand appraisal differences surrounding psychological stress in urban and rural communities in China; we then compared them with large-scale polls from Gallup. After controlling for socioeconomic and gender differences, we found that rural communities tend to express stress in emotional and personal themes such as relationships, health, and opportunity while users in urban areas express stress using relative, temporal, and external themes such as work, politics, and economics. These differences exist beyond controlling for GDP and urbanization, indicating a fundamentally different lifestyle between rural and urban residents in very specific environments, arguably having different sources of stress. We found corroborative trends in physical, financial, and social wellness with urbanization in Gallup polls.

* Accepted at AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM) 2022 

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Heterogeneous Treatment Effect Estimation using machine learning for Healthcare application: tutorial and benchmark

Sep 27, 2021
Yaobin Ling, Pulakesh Upadhyaya, Luyao Chen, Xiaoqian Jiang, Yejin Kim

Developing new drugs for target diseases is a time-consuming and expensive task, drug repurposing has become a popular topic in the drug development field. As much health claim data become available, many studies have been conducted on the data. The real-world data is noisy, sparse, and has many confounding factors. In addition, many studies have shown that drugs effects are heterogeneous among the population. Lots of advanced machine learning models about estimating heterogeneous treatment effects (HTE) have emerged in recent years, and have been applied to in econometrics and machine learning communities. These studies acknowledge medicine and drug development as the main application area, but there has been limited translational research from the HTE methodology to drug development. We aim to introduce the HTE methodology to the healthcare area and provide feasibility consideration when translating the methodology with benchmark experiments on healthcare administrative claim data. Also, we want to use benchmark experiments to show how to interpret and evaluate the model when it is applied to healthcare research. By introducing the recent HTE techniques to a broad readership in biomedical informatics communities, we expect to promote the wide adoption of causal inference using machine learning. We also expect to provide the feasibility of HTE for personalized drug effectiveness.

* 35 pages, 7 figures 

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AI-HRI 2021 Proceedings

Sep 23, 2021
Reuth Mirsky, Megan Zimmerman, Muneed Ahmad, Shelly Bagchi, Felix Gervits, Zhao Han, Justin Hart, Daniel Hernández García, Matteo Leonetti, Ross Mead, Emmanuel Senft, Jivko Sinapov, Jason Wilson

The Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Symposium has been a successful venue of discussion and collaboration since 2014. During that time, these symposia provided a fertile ground for numerous collaborations and pioneered many discussions revolving trust in HRI, XAI for HRI, service robots, interactive learning, and more. This year, we aim to review the achievements of the AI-HRI community in the last decade, identify the challenges facing ahead, and welcome new researchers who wish to take part in this growing community. Taking this wide perspective, this year there will be no single theme to lead the symposium and we encourage AI-HRI submissions from across disciplines and research interests. Moreover, with the rising interest in AR and VR as part of an interaction and following the difficulties in running physical experiments during the pandemic, this year we specifically encourage researchers to submit works that do not include a physical robot in their evaluation, but promote HRI research in general. In addition, acknowledging that ethics is an inherent part of the human-robot interaction, we encourage submissions of works on ethics for HRI. Over the course of the two-day meeting, we will host a collaborative forum for discussion of current efforts in AI-HRI, with additional talks focused on the topics of ethics in HRI and ubiquitous HRI.

* Proceedings of the AI-HRI Symposium at AAAI-FSS 2021 

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ICDAR 2021 Competition on Scene Video Text Spotting

Jul 26, 2021
Zhanzhan Cheng, Jing Lu, Baorui Zou, Shuigeng Zhou, Fei Wu

Scene video text spotting (SVTS) is a very important research topic because of many real-life applications. However, only a little effort has put to spotting scene video text, in contrast to massive studies of scene text spotting in static images. Due to various environmental interferences like motion blur, spotting scene video text becomes very challenging. To promote this research area, this competition introduces a new challenge dataset containing 129 video clips from 21 natural scenarios in full annotations. The competition containts three tasks, that is, video text detection (Task 1), video text tracking (Task 2) and end-to-end video text spotting (Task3). During the competition period (opened on 1st March, 2021 and closed on 11th April, 2021), a total of 24 teams participated in the three proposed tasks with 46 valid submissions, respectively. This paper includes dataset descriptions, task definitions, evaluation protocols and results summaries of the ICDAR 2021 on SVTS competition. Thanks to the healthy number of teams as well as submissions, we consider that the SVTS competition has been successfully held, drawing much attention from the community and promoting the field research and its development.

* SVTS Technique Report for ICDAR 2021 competition 

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From Single to Multiple: Leveraging Multi-level Prediction Spaces for Video Forecasting

Jul 21, 2021
Mengcheng Lan, Shuliang Ning, Yanran Li, Qian Chen, Xunlai Chen, Xiaoguang Han, Shuguang Cui

Despite video forecasting has been a widely explored topic in recent years, the mainstream of the existing work still limits their models with a single prediction space but completely neglects the way to leverage their model with multi-prediction spaces. This work fills this gap. For the first time, we deeply study numerous strategies to perform video forecasting in multi-prediction spaces and fuse their results together to boost performance. The prediction in the pixel space usually lacks the ability to preserve the semantic and structure content of the video however the prediction in the high-level feature space is prone to generate errors in the reduction and recovering process. Therefore, we build a recurrent connection between different feature spaces and incorporate their generations in the upsampling process. Rather surprisingly, this simple idea yields a much more significant performance boost than PhyDNet (performance improved by 32.1% MAE on MNIST-2 dataset, and 21.4% MAE on KTH dataset). Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on four datasets demonstrate the generalization ability and effectiveness of our approach. We show that our model significantly reduces the troublesome distortions and blurry artifacts and brings remarkable improvements to the accuracy in long term video prediction. The code will be released soon.


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Legal Judgment Prediction with Multi-Stage CaseRepresentation Learning in the Real Court Setting

Jul 12, 2021
Luyao Ma, Yating Zhang, Tianyi Wang, Xiaozhong Liu, Wei Ye, Changlong Sun, Shikun Zhang

Legal judgment prediction(LJP) is an essential task for legal AI. While prior methods studied on this topic in a pseudo setting by employing the judge-summarized case narrative as the input to predict the judgment, neglecting critical case life-cycle information in real court setting could threaten the case logic representation quality and prediction correctness. In this paper, we introduce a novel challenging dataset from real courtrooms to predict the legal judgment in a reasonably encyclopedic manner by leveraging the genuine input of the case -- plaintiff's claims and court debate data, from which the case's facts are automatically recognized by comprehensively understanding the multi-role dialogues of the court debate, and then learnt to discriminate the claims so as to reach the final judgment through multi-task learning. An extensive set of experiments with a large civil trial data set shows that the proposed model can more accurately characterize the interactions among claims, fact and debate for legal judgment prediction, achieving significant improvements over strong state-of-the-art baselines. Moreover, the user study conducted with real judges and law school students shows the neural predictions can also be interpretable and easily observed, and thus enhancing the trial efficiency and judgment quality.

* Accepted at SIGIR2021 

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