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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Representativity Fairness in Clustering

Oct 11, 2020
Deepak P, Savitha Sam Abraham

Incorporating fairness constructs into machine learning algorithms is a topic of much societal importance and recent interest. Clustering, a fundamental task in unsupervised learning that manifests across a number of web data scenarios, has also been subject of attention within fair ML research. In this paper, we develop a novel notion of fairness in clustering, called representativity fairness. Representativity fairness is motivated by the need to alleviate disparity across objects' proximity to their assigned cluster representatives, to aid fairer decision making. We illustrate the importance of representativity fairness in real-world decision making scenarios involving clustering and provide ways of quantifying objects' representativity and fairness over it. We develop a new clustering formulation, RFKM, that targets to optimize for representativity fairness along with clustering quality. Inspired by the $K$-Means framework, RFKM incorporates novel loss terms to formulate an objective function. The RFKM objective and optimization approach guides it towards clustering configurations that yield higher representativity fairness. Through an empirical evaluation over a variety of public datasets, we establish the effectiveness of our method. We illustrate that we are able to significantly improve representativity fairness at only marginal impact to clustering quality.

* In 12th ACM Web Science Conference (WebSci 2020) 

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SAMOT: Switcher-Aware Multi-Object Tracking and Still Another MOT Measure

Sep 22, 2020
Weitao Feng, Zhihao Hu, Baopu Li, Weihao Gan, Wei Wu, Wanli Ouyang

Multi-Object Tracking (MOT) is a popular topic in computer vision. However, identity issue, i.e., an object is wrongly associated with another object of a different identity, still remains to be a challenging problem. To address it, switchers, i.e., confusing targets thatmay cause identity issues, should be focused. Based on this motivation,this paper proposes a novel switcher-aware framework for multi-object tracking, which consists of Spatial Conflict Graph model (SCG) and Switcher-Aware Association (SAA). The SCG eliminates spatial switch-ers within one frame by building a conflict graph and working out the optimal subgraph. The SAA utilizes additional information from potential temporal switcher across frames, enabling more accurate data association. Besides, we propose a new MOT evaluation measure, Still Another IDF score (SAIDF), aiming to focus more on identity issues.This new measure may overcome some problems of the previous measures and provide a better insight for identity issues in MOT. Finally,the proposed framework is tested under both the traditional measures and the new measure we proposed. Extensive experiments show that ourmethod achieves competitive results on all measure.

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Characterizing Sociolinguistic Variation in the Competing Vaccination Communities

Jul 01, 2020
Shahan Ali Memon, Aman Tyagi, David R. Mortensen, Kathleen M. Carley

Public health practitioners and policy makers grapple with the challenge of devising effective message-based interventions for debunking public health misinformation in cyber communities. "Framing" and "personalization" of the message is one of the key features for devising a persuasive messaging strategy. For an effective health communication, it is imperative to focus on "preference-based framing" where the preferences of the target sub-community are taken into consideration. To achieve that, it is important to understand and hence characterize the target sub-communities in terms of their social interactions. In the context of health-related misinformation, vaccination remains to be the most prevalent topic of discord. Hence, in this paper, we conduct a sociolinguistic analysis of the two competing vaccination communities on Twitter: "pro-vaxxers" or individuals who believe in the effectiveness of vaccinations, and "anti-vaxxers" or individuals who are opposed to vaccinations. Our data analysis show significant linguistic variation between the two communities in terms of their usage of linguistic intensifiers, pronouns, and uncertainty words. Our network-level analysis show significant differences between the two communities in terms of their network density, echo-chamberness, and the EI index. We hypothesize that these sociolinguistic differences can be used as proxies to characterize and understand these communities to devise better message interventions.

* 11 pages, 4 tables, 1 figure, 1 algorithm, accepted to SBP-BRiMS 2020 -- International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling & Prediction and Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation 

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Maximum Roaming Multi-Task Learning

Jun 17, 2020
Lucas Pascal, Pietro Michiardi, Xavier Bost, Benoit Huet, Maria A. Zuluaga

Multi-task learning has gained popularity due to the advantages it provides with respect to resource usage and performance. Nonetheless, the joint optimization of parameters with respect to multiple tasks remains an active research topic. Sub-partitioning the parameters between different tasks has proven to be an efficient way to relax the optimization constraints over the shared weights, may the partitions be disjoint or overlapping. However, one drawback of this approach is that it can weaken the inductive bias generally set up by the joint task optimization. In this work, we present a novel way to partition the parameter space without weakening the inductive bias. Specifically, we propose Maximum Roaming, a method inspired by dropout that randomly varies the parameter partitioning, while forcing them to visit as many tasks as possible at a regulated frequency, so that the network fully adapts to each update. We study the properties of our method through experiments on a variety of visual multi-task data sets. Experimental results suggest that the regularization brought by roaming has more impact on performance than usual partitioning optimization strategies. The overall method is flexible, easily applicable, provides superior regularization and consistently achieves improved performances compared to recent multi-task learning formulations.

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Neuron Linear Transformation: Modeling the Domain Shift for Crowd Counting

Apr 05, 2020
Qi Wang, Tao Han, Junyu Gao, Yuan Yuan

Cross-domain crowd counting (CDCC) is a hot topic due to its importance in public safety. The purpose of CDCC is to reduce the domain shift between the source and target domain. Recently, typical methods attempt to extract domain-invariant features via image translation and adversarial learning. When it comes to specific tasks, we find that the final manifestation of the task gap is in the parameters of the model, and the domain shift can be represented apparently by the differences in model weights. To describe the domain gap directly at the parameter-level, we propose a Neuron Linear Transformation (NLT) method, where NLT is exploited to learn the shift at neuron-level and then transfer the source model to the target model. Specifically, for a specific neuron of a source model, NLT exploits few labeled target data to learn a group of parameters, which updates the target neuron via a linear transformation. Extensive experiments and analysis on six real-world datasets validate that NLT achieves top performance compared with other domain adaptation methods. An ablation study also shows that the NLT is robust and more effective compare with supervised and fine-tune training. Furthermore, we will release the code after the paper is accepted.

* 12 paegs, 8 figures 

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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer with Meta Learning

Mar 05, 2020
Farhad Nooralahzadeh, Giannis Bekoulis, Johannes Bjerva, Isabelle Augenstein

Learning what to share between tasks has been a topic of high importance recently, as strategic sharing of knowledge has been shown to improve the performance of downstream tasks. The same applies to sharing between languages, and is especially important when considering the fact that most languages in the world suffer from being under-resourced. In this paper, we consider the setting of training models on multiple different languages at the same time, when little or no data is available for languages other than English. We show that this challenging setup can be approached using meta-learning, where, in addition to training a source language model, another model learns to select which training instances are the most beneficial. We experiment using standard supervised, zero-shot cross-lingual, as well as few-shot cross-lingual settings for different natural language understanding tasks (natural language inference, question answering). Our extensive experimental setup demonstrates the consistent effectiveness of meta-learning, on a total 16 languages. We improve upon state-of-the-art on zero-shot and few-shot NLI and QA tasks on the XNLI and X-WikiRe datasets, respectively. We further conduct a comprehensive analysis which indicates that correlation of typological features between languages can further explain when parameter sharing learned via meta learning is beneficial.

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Artificial intelligence in medicine and healthcare: a review and classification of current and near-future applications and their ethical and social Impact

Feb 06, 2020
Emilio Gómez-González, Emilia Gomez, Javier Márquez-Rivas, Manuel Guerrero-Claro, Isabel Fernández-Lizaranzu, María Isabel Relimpio-López, Manuel E. Dorado, María José Mayorga-Buiza, Guillermo Izquierdo-Ayuso, Luis Capitán-Morales

This paper provides an overview of the current and near-future applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine and Health Care and presents a classification according to their ethical and societal aspects, potential benefits and pitfalls, and issues that can be considered controversial and are not deeply discussed in the literature. This work is based on an analysis of the state of the art of research and technology, including existing software, personal monitoring devices, genetic tests and editing tools, personalized digital models, online platforms, augmented reality devices, and surgical and companion robotics. Motivated by our review, we present and describe the notion of 'extended personalized medicine', we then review existing applications of AI in medicine and healthcare and explore the public perception of medical AI systems, and how they show, simultaneously, extraordinary opportunities and drawbacks that even question fundamental medical concepts. Many of these topics coincide with urgent priorities recently defined by the World Health Organization for the coming decade. In addition, we study the transformations of the roles of doctors and patients in an age of ubiquitous information, identify the risk of a division of Medicine into 'fake-based', 'patient-generated', and 'scientifically tailored', and draw the attention of some aspects that need further thorough analysis and public debate.

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Eliminating cross-camera bias for vehicle re-identification

Dec 21, 2019
Jinjia Peng, Guangqi Jiang, Dongyan Chen, Tongtong Zhao, Huibing Wang, Xianping Fu

Vehicle re-identification (reID) often requires recognize a target vehicle in large datasets captured from multi-cameras. It plays an important role in the automatic analysis of the increasing urban surveillance videos, which has become a hot topic in recent years. However, the appearance of vehicle images is easily affected by the environment that various illuminations, different backgrounds and viewpoints, which leads to the large bias between different cameras. To address this problem, this paper proposes a cross-camera adaptation framework (CCA), which smooths the bias by exploiting the common space between cameras for all samples. CCA first transfers images from multi-cameras into one camera to reduce the impact of the illumination and resolution, which generates the samples with the similar distribution. Then, to eliminate the influence of background and focus on the valuable parts, we propose an attention alignment network (AANet) to learn powerful features for vehicle reID. Specially, in AANet, the spatial transfer network with attention module is introduced to locate a series of the most discriminative regions with high-attention weights and suppress the background. Moreover, comprehensive experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed CCA can achieve excellent performances on benchmark datasets VehicleID and VeRi-776.

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Dual Network Architecture for Few-view CT -- Trained on ImageNet Data and Transferred for Medical Imaging

Jul 17, 2019
Huidong Xie, Hongming Shan, Wenxiang Cong, Xiaohua Zhang, Shaohua Liu, Ruola Ning, Ge Wang

X-ray computed tomography (CT) reconstructs cross-sectional images from projection data. However, ionizing X-ray radiation associated with CT scanning might induce cancer and genetic damage and raises public concerns, and the reduction of radiation dose has attracted major attention. Few-view CT image reconstruction is an important topic to reduce the radiation dose. Recently, data-driven algorithms have shown great potential to solve the few-view CT problem. In this paper, we develop a dual network architecture (DNA) for reconstructing images directly from sinograms. In the proposed DNA method, a point-based fully-connected layer learns the backprojection process requesting significantly less memory than the prior art and with O(C*N*N_c) parameters where N and N_c denote the dimension of reconstructed images and number of projections respectively. C is an adjustable parameter that can be set as low as 1. Our experimental results demonstrate that DNA produces a competitive performance over the other state-of-the-art methods. Interestingly, natural images can be used to pre-train DNA to avoid overfitting when the amount of real patient images is limited.

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