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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Transforming Wikipedia into an Ontology-based Information Retrieval Search Engine for Local Experts using a Third-Party Taxonomy

May 30, 2016
Gregory Grefenstette, Karima Rafes

Wikipedia is widely used for finding general information about a wide variety of topics. Its vocation is not to provide local information. For example, it provides plot, cast, and production information about a given movie, but not showing times in your local movie theatre. Here we describe how we can connect local information to Wikipedia, without altering its content. The case study we present involves finding local scientific experts. Using a third-party taxonomy, independent from Wikipedia's category hierarchy, we index information connected to our local experts, present in their activity reports, and we re-index Wikipedia content using the same taxonomy. The connections between Wikipedia pages and local expert reports are stored in a relational database, accessible through as public SPARQL endpoint. A Wikipedia gadget (or plugin) activated by the interested user, accesses the endpoint as each Wikipedia page is accessed. An additional tab on the Wikipedia page allows the user to open up a list of teams of local experts associated with the subject matter in the Wikipedia page. The technique, though presented here as a way to identify local experts, is generic, in that any third party taxonomy, can be used in this to connect Wikipedia to any non-Wikipedia data source.

* Joint Second Workshop on Language and Ontology \& Terminology and Knowledge Structures (LangOnto2 + TermiKS) LO2TKS, May 2016, Portoroz, Slovenia. 2016 

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Modeling User Exposure in Recommendation

Feb 04, 2016
Dawen Liang, Laurent Charlin, James McInerney, David M. Blei

Collaborative filtering analyzes user preferences for items (e.g., books, movies, restaurants, academic papers) by exploiting the similarity patterns across users. In implicit feedback settings, all the items, including the ones that a user did not consume, are taken into consideration. But this assumption does not accord with the common sense understanding that users have a limited scope and awareness of items. For example, a user might not have heard of a certain paper, or might live too far away from a restaurant to experience it. In the language of causal analysis, the assignment mechanism (i.e., the items that a user is exposed to) is a latent variable that may change for various user/item combinations. In this paper, we propose a new probabilistic approach that directly incorporates user exposure to items into collaborative filtering. The exposure is modeled as a latent variable and the model infers its value from data. In doing so, we recover one of the most successful state-of-the-art approaches as a special case of our model, and provide a plug-in method for conditioning exposure on various forms of exposure covariates (e.g., topics in text, venue locations). We show that our scalable inference algorithm outperforms existing benchmarks in four different domains both with and without exposure covariates.

* 11 pages, 4 figures. WWW'16 

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A Continuous-time Mutually-Exciting Point Process Framework for Prioritizing Events in Social Media

Nov 13, 2015
Mehrdad Farajtabar, Safoora Yousefi, Long Q. Tran, Le Song, Hongyuan Zha

The overwhelming amount and rate of information update in online social media is making it increasingly difficult for users to allocate their attention to their topics of interest, thus there is a strong need for prioritizing news feeds. The attractiveness of a post to a user depends on many complex contextual and temporal features of the post. For instance, the contents of the post, the responsiveness of a third user, and the age of the post may all have impact. So far, these static and dynamic features has not been incorporated in a unified framework to tackle the post prioritization problem. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for prioritizing posts based on a feature modulated multi-dimensional point process. Our model is able to simultaneously capture textual and sentiment features, and temporal features such as self-excitation, mutual-excitation and bursty nature of social interaction. As an evaluation, we also curated a real-world conversational benchmark dataset crawled from Facebook. In our experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is able to achieve the-state-of-the-art performance in terms of analyzing, predicting, and prioritizing events. In terms of interpretability of our method, we observe that features indicating individual user profile and linguistic characteristics of the events work best for prediction and prioritization of new events.

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Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

Jun 18, 2015
Diego R. Amancio, Filipi N. Silva, Luciano da F. Costa

Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or betweenness centrality. The effectiveness of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for related applications, such as those relying on the identification of topical words and information retrieval.

* Europhys. Lett. 110 68001 (2015) 
* Accepted for publication in Europhys. Lett. (EPL). The supplementary information is available from 

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Is it morally acceptable for a system to lie to persuade me?

Apr 15, 2014
Marco Guerini, Fabio Pianesi, Oliviero Stock

Given the fast rise of increasingly autonomous artificial agents and robots, a key acceptability criterion will be the possible moral implications of their actions. In particular, intelligent persuasive systems (systems designed to influence humans via communication) constitute a highly sensitive topic because of their intrinsically social nature. Still, ethical studies in this area are rare and tend to focus on the output of the required action. Instead, this work focuses on the persuasive acts themselves (e.g. "is it morally acceptable that a machine lies or appeals to the emotions of a person to persuade her, even if for a good end?"). Exploiting a behavioral approach, based on human assessment of moral dilemmas -- i.e. without any prior assumption of underlying ethical theories -- this paper reports on a set of experiments. These experiments address the type of persuader (human or machine), the strategies adopted (purely argumentative, appeal to positive emotions, appeal to negative emotions, lie) and the circumstances. Findings display no differences due to the agent, mild acceptability for persuasion and reveal that truth-conditional reasoning (i.e. argument validity) is a significant dimension affecting subjects' judgment. Some implications for the design of intelligent persuasive systems are discussed.

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Consistent Bounded-Asynchronous Parameter Servers for Distributed ML

Dec 31, 2013
Jinliang Wei, Wei Dai, Abhimanu Kumar, Xun Zheng, Qirong Ho, Eric P. Xing

In distributed ML applications, shared parameters are usually replicated among computing nodes to minimize network overhead. Therefore, proper consistency model must be carefully chosen to ensure algorithm's correctness and provide high throughput. Existing consistency models used in general-purpose databases and modern distributed ML systems are either too loose to guarantee correctness of the ML algorithms or too strict and thus fail to fully exploit the computing power of the underlying distributed system. Many ML algorithms fall into the category of \emph{iterative convergent algorithms} which start from a randomly chosen initial point and converge to optima by repeating iteratively a set of procedures. We've found that many such algorithms are to a bounded amount of inconsistency and still converge correctly. This property allows distributed ML to relax strict consistency models to improve system performance while theoretically guarantees algorithmic correctness. In this paper, we present several relaxed consistency models for asynchronous parallel computation and theoretically prove their algorithmic correctness. The proposed consistency models are implemented in a distributed parameter server and evaluated in the context of a popular ML application: topic modeling.

* Corrected Title 

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Uniqueness of Tensor Decompositions with Applications to Polynomial Identifiability

Apr 30, 2013
Aditya Bhaskara, Moses Charikar, Aravindan Vijayaraghavan

We give a robust version of the celebrated result of Kruskal on the uniqueness of tensor decompositions: we prove that given a tensor whose decomposition satisfies a robust form of Kruskal's rank condition, it is possible to approximately recover the decomposition if the tensor is known up to a sufficiently small (inverse polynomial) error. Kruskal's theorem has found many applications in proving the identifiability of parameters for various latent variable models and mixture models such as Hidden Markov models, topic models etc. Our robust version immediately implies identifiability using only polynomially many samples in many of these settings. This polynomial identifiability is an essential first step towards efficient learning algorithms for these models. Recently, algorithms based on tensor decompositions have been used to estimate the parameters of various hidden variable models efficiently in special cases as long as they satisfy certain "non-degeneracy" properties. Our methods give a way to go beyond this non-degeneracy barrier, and establish polynomial identifiability of the parameters under much milder conditions. Given the importance of Kruskal's theorem in the tensor literature, we expect that this robust version will have several applications beyond the settings we explore in this work.

* 51 pages, 2 figures 

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A Squeeze-and-Excitation and Transformer based Cross-task System for Environmental Sound Recognition

Mar 16, 2022
Jisheng Bai, Jianfeng Chen, Mou Wang, Muhammad Saad Ayub

Environmental sound recognition (ESR) is an emerging research topic in audio pattern recognition. Many tasks are presented to resort to computational systems for ESR in real-life applications. However, current systems are usually designed for individual tasks, and are not robust and applicable to other tasks. Cross-task systems, which promote unified knowledge modeling across various tasks, have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we propose a cross-task system for three different tasks of ESR: acoustic scene classification, urban sound tagging, and anomalous sound detection. An architecture named SE-Trans is presented that uses attention mechanism-based Squeeze-and-Excitation and Transformer encoder modules to learn channel-wise relationship and temporal dependencies of the acoustic features. FMix is employed as the data augmentation method that improves the performance of ESR. Evaluations for the three tasks are conducted on the recent databases of DCASE challenges. The experimental results show that the proposed cross-task system achieves state-of-the-art performance on all tasks. Further analysis demonstrates that the proposed cross-task system can effectively utilize acoustic knowledge across different ESR tasks.

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When did you become so smart, oh wise one?! Sarcasm Explanation in Multi-modal Multi-party Dialogues

Mar 12, 2022
Shivani Kumar, Atharva Kulkarni, Md Shad Akhtar, Tanmoy Chakraborty

Indirect speech such as sarcasm achieves a constellation of discourse goals in human communication. While the indirectness of figurative language warrants speakers to achieve certain pragmatic goals, it is challenging for AI agents to comprehend such idiosyncrasies of human communication. Though sarcasm identification has been a well-explored topic in dialogue analysis, for conversational systems to truly grasp a conversation's innate meaning and generate appropriate responses, simply detecting sarcasm is not enough; it is vital to explain its underlying sarcastic connotation to capture its true essence. In this work, we study the discourse structure of sarcastic conversations and propose a novel task - Sarcasm Explanation in Dialogue (SED). Set in a multimodal and code-mixed setting, the task aims to generate natural language explanations of satirical conversations. To this end, we curate WITS, a new dataset to support our task. We propose MAF (Modality Aware Fusion), a multimodal context-aware attention and global information fusion module to capture multimodality and use it to benchmark WITS. The proposed attention module surpasses the traditional multimodal fusion baselines and reports the best performance on almost all metrics. Lastly, we carry out detailed analyses both quantitatively and qualitatively.

* Accepted in ACL 2022. 13 pages, 4 figures, 12 tables 

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SkiM: Skipping Memory LSTM for Low-Latency Real-Time Continuous Speech Separation

Feb 10, 2022
Chenda Li, Lei Yang, Weiqin Wang, Yanmin Qian

Continuous speech separation for meeting pre-processing has recently become a focused research topic. Compared to the data in utterance-level speech separation, the meeting-style audio stream lasts longer, has an uncertain number of speakers. We adopt the time-domain speech separation method and the recently proposed Graph-PIT to build a super low-latency online speech separation model, which is very important for the real application. The low-latency time-domain encoder with a small stride leads to an extremely long feature sequence. We proposed a simple yet efficient model named Skipping Memory (SkiM) for the long sequence modeling. Experimental results show that SkiM achieves on par or even better separation performance than DPRNN. Meanwhile, the computational cost of SkiM is reduced by 75% compared to DPRNN. The strong long sequence modeling capability and low computational cost make SkiM a suitable model for online CSS applications. Our fastest real-time model gets 17.1 dB signal-to-distortion (SDR) improvement with less than 1-millisecond latency in the simulated meeting-style evaluation.

* Accepted by ICASSP 2022 

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