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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Technologies for Trustworthy Machine Learning: A Survey in a Socio-Technical Context

Jul 17, 2020
Ehsan Toreini, Mhairi Aitken, Kovila P. L. Coopamootoo, Karen Elliott, Vladimiro Gonzalez Zelaya, Paolo Missier, Magdalene Ng, Aad van Moorsel

Concerns about the societal impact of AI-based services and systems has encouraged governments and other organisations around the world to propose AI policy frameworks to address fairness, accountability, transparency and related topics. To achieve the objectives of these frameworks, the data and software engineers who build machine-learning systems require knowledge about a variety of relevant supporting tools and techniques. In this paper we provide an overview of technologies that support building trustworthy machine learning systems, i.e., systems whose properties justify that people place trust in them. We argue that four categories of system properties are instrumental in achieving the policy objectives, namely fairness, explainability, auditability and safety & security (FEAS). We discuss how these properties need to be considered across all stages of the machine learning life cycle, from data collection through run-time model inference. As a consequence, we survey in this paper the main technologies with respect to all four of the FEAS properties, for data-centric as well as model-centric stages of the machine learning system life cycle. We conclude with an identification of open research problems, with a particular focus on the connection between trustworthy machine learning technologies and their implications for individuals and society.

* Submitted Version 

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Geometric Style Transfer

Jul 10, 2020
Xiao-Chang Liu, Xuan-Yi Li, Ming-Ming Cheng, Peter Hall

Neural style transfer (NST), where an input image is rendered in the style of another image, has been a topic of considerable progress in recent years. Research over that time has been dominated by transferring aspects of color and texture, yet these factors are only one component of style. Other factors of style include composition, the projection system used, and the way in which artists warp and bend objects. Our contribution is to introduce a neural architecture that supports transfer of geometric style. Unlike recent work in this area, we are unique in being general in that we are not restricted by semantic content. This new architecture runs prior to a network that transfers texture style, enabling us to transfer texture to a warped image. This form of network supports a second novelty: we extend the NST input paradigm. Users can input content/style pair as is common, or they can chose to input a content/texture-style/geometry-style triple. This three image input paradigm divides style into two parts and so provides significantly greater versatility to the output we can produce. We provide user studies that show the quality of our output, and quantify the importance of geometric style transfer to style recognition by humans.

* 10 pages, 12 figures 

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Intriguing generalization and simplicity of adversarially trained neural networks

Jun 16, 2020
Chirag Agarwal, Peijie Chen, Anh Nguyen

Adversarial training has been the topic of dozens of studies and a leading method for defending against adversarial attacks. Yet, it remains unknown (a) how adversarially-trained classifiers (a.k.a "robust" classifiers) generalize to new types of out-of-distribution examples; and (b) what hidden representations were learned by robust networks. In this paper, we perform a thorough, systematic study to answer these two questions on AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet-50 trained on ImageNet. While robust models often perform on-par or worse than standard models on unseen distorted, texture-preserving images (e.g. blurred), they are consistently more accurate on texture-less images (i.e. silhouettes and stylized). That is, robust models rely heavily on shapes, in stark contrast to the strong texture bias in standard ImageNet classifiers (Geirhos et al. 2018). Remarkably, adversarial training causes three significant shifts in the functions of hidden neurons. That is, each convolutional neuron often changes to (1) detect pixel-wise smoother patterns; (2) detect more lower-level features i.e. textures and colors (instead of objects); and (3) be simpler in terms of complexity i.e. detecting more limited sets of concepts.

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Predicting Engagement in Video Lectures

Jun 10, 2020
Sahan Bulathwela, María Pérez-Ortiz, Aldo Lipani, Emine Yilmaz, John Shawe-Taylor

The explosion of Open Educational Resources (OERs) in the recent years creates the demand for scalable, automatic approaches to process and evaluate OERs, with the end goal of identifying and recommending the most suitable educational materials for learners. We focus on building models to find the characteristics and features involved in context-agnostic engagement (i.e. population-based), a seldom researched topic compared to other contextualised and personalised approaches that focus more on individual learner engagement. Learner engagement, is arguably a more reliable measure than popularity/number of views, is more abundant than user ratings and has also been shown to be a crucial component in achieving learning outcomes. In this work, we explore the idea of building a predictive model for population-based engagement in education. We introduce a novel, large dataset of video lectures for predicting context-agnostic engagement and propose both cross-modal and modality-specific feature sets to achieve this task. We further test different strategies for quantifying learner engagement signals. We demonstrate the use of our approach in the case of data scarcity. Additionally, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the best performing model, which shows promising performance and can be easily integrated into an educational recommender system for OERs.

* In Proceedings of International Conference on Educational Data Mining 2020 

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Image Co-skeletonization via Co-segmentation

Apr 12, 2020
Koteswar Rao Jerripothula, Jianfei Cai, Jiangbo Lu, Junsong Yuan

Recent advances in the joint processing of images have certainly shown its advantages over individual processing. Different from the existing works geared towards co-segmentation or co-localization, in this paper, we explore a new joint processing topic: image co-skeletonization, which is defined as joint skeleton extraction of objects in an image collection. Object skeletonization in a single natural image is a challenging problem because there is hardly any prior knowledge about the object. Therefore, we resort to the idea of object co-skeletonization, hoping that the commonness prior that exists across the images may help, just as it does for other joint processing problems such as co-segmentation. We observe that the skeleton can provide good scribbles for segmentation, and skeletonization, in turn, needs good segmentation. Therefore, we propose a coupled framework for co-skeletonization and co-segmentation tasks so that they are well informed by each other, and benefit each other synergistically. Since it is a new problem, we also construct a benchmark dataset by annotating nearly 1.8k images spread across 38 categories. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves promising results in all the three possible scenarios of joint-processing: weakly-supervised, supervised, and unsupervised.

* 13 pages, 12 figures, Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (TIP) 

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FairALM: Augmented Lagrangian Method for Training Fair Models with Little Regret

Apr 03, 2020
Vishnu Suresh Lokhande, Aditya Kumar Akash, Sathya N. Ravi, Vikas Singh

Algorithmic decision making based on computer vision and machine learning technologies continue to permeate our lives. But issues related to biases of these models and the extent to which they treat certain segments of the population unfairly, have led to concern in the general public. It is now accepted that because of biases in the datasets we present to the models, a fairness-oblivious training will lead to unfair models. An interesting topic is the study of mechanisms via which the de novo design or training of the model can be informed by fairness measures. Here, we study mechanisms that impose fairness concurrently while training the model. While existing fairness based approaches in vision have largely relied on training adversarial modules together with the primary classification/regression task, in an effort to remove the influence of the protected attribute or variable, we show how ideas based on well-known optimization concepts can provide a simpler alternative. In our proposed scheme, imposing fairness just requires specifying the protected attribute and utilizing our optimization routine. We provide a detailed technical analysis and present experiments demonstrating that various fairness measures from the literature can be reliably imposed on a number of training tasks in vision in a manner that is interpretable.

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Extending Automated Deduction for Commonsense Reasoning

Mar 29, 2020
Tanel Tammet

Commonsense reasoning has long been considered as one of the holy grails of artificial intelligence. Most of the recent progress in the field has been achieved by novel machine learning algorithms for natural language processing. However, without incorporating logical reasoning, these algorithms remain arguably shallow. With some notable exceptions, developers of practical automated logic-based reasoners have mostly avoided focusing on the problem. The paper argues that the methods and algorithms used by existing automated reasoners for classical first-order logic can be extended towards commonsense reasoning. Instead of devising new specialized logics we propose a framework of extensions to the mainstream resolution-based search methods to make these capable of performing search tasks for practical commonsense reasoning with reasonable efficiency. The proposed extensions mostly rely on operating on ordinary proof trees and are devised to handle commonsense knowledge bases containing inconsistencies, default rules, taxonomies, topics, relevance, confidence and similarity measures. We claim that machine learning is best suited for the construction of commonsense knowledge bases while the extended logic-based methods would be well-suited for actually answering queries from these knowledge bases.

* 19 pages, no figures 

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SBERT-WK: A Sentence Embedding Method by Dissecting BERT-based Word Models

Feb 16, 2020
Bin Wang, C. -C. Jay Kuo

Sentence embedding is an important research topic in natural language processing (NLP) since it can transfer knowledge to downstream tasks. Meanwhile, a contextualized word representation, called BERT, achieves the state-of-the-art performance in quite a few NLP tasks. Yet, it is an open problem to generate a high quality sentence representation from BERT-based word models. It was shown in previous study that different layers of BERT capture different linguistic properties. This allows us to fusion information across layers to find better sentence representation. In this work, we study the layer-wise pattern of the word representation of deep contextualized models. Then, we propose a new sentence embedding method by dissecting BERT-based word models through geometric analysis of the space spanned by the word representation. It is called the SBERT-WK method. No further training is required in SBERT-WK. We evaluate SBERT-WK on semantic textual similarity and downstream supervised tasks. Furthermore, ten sentence-level probing tasks are presented for detailed linguistic analysis. Experiments show that SBERT-WK achieves the state-of-the-art performance. Our codes are publicly available.

* 13 pages, 3 figure, 8 tables 

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Structural-Aware Sentence Similarity with Recursive Optimal Transport

Jan 28, 2020
Zihao Wang, Yong Zhang, Hao Wu

Measuring sentence similarity is a classic topic in natural language processing. Light-weighted similarities are still of particular practical significance even when deep learning models have succeeded in many other tasks. Some light-weighted similarities with more theoretical insights have been demonstrated to be even stronger than supervised deep learning approaches. However, the successful light-weighted models such as Word Mover's Distance [Kusner et al., 2015] or Smooth Inverse Frequency [Arora et al., 2017] failed to detect the difference from the structure of sentences, i.e. order of words. To address this issue, we present Recursive Optimal Transport (ROT) framework to incorporate the structural information with the classic OT. Moreover, we further develop Recursive Optimal Similarity (ROTS) for sentences with the valuable semantic insights from the connections between cosine similarity of weighted average of word vectors and optimal transport. ROTS is structural-aware and with low time complexity compared to optimal transport. Our experiments over 20 sentence textural similarity (STS) datasets show the clear advantage of ROTS over all weakly supervised approaches. Detailed ablation study demonstrate the effectiveness of ROT and the semantic insights.

* 7 pages, 2 figures 

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