Robustness to adversarial examples of machine learning models remains an open topic of research. Attacks often succeed by repeatedly probing a fixed target model with adversarial examples purposely crafted to fool it. In this paper, we introduce Morphence, an approach that shifts the defense landscape by making a model a moving target against adversarial examples. By regularly moving the decision function of a model, Morphence makes it significantly challenging for repeated or correlated attacks to succeed. Morphence deploys a pool of models generated from a base model in a manner that introduces sufficient randomness when it responds to prediction queries. To ensure repeated or correlated attacks fail, the deployed pool of models automatically expires after a query budget is reached and the model pool is seamlessly replaced by a new model pool generated in advance. We evaluate Morphence on two benchmark image classification datasets (MNIST and CIFAR10) against five reference attacks (2 white-box and 3 black-box). In all cases, Morphence consistently outperforms the thus-far effective defense, adversarial training, even in the face of strong white-box attacks, while preserving accuracy on clean data.
Compared with traditional deep learning techniques, continual learning enables deep neural networks to learn continually and adaptively. Deep neural networks have to learn new tasks and overcome forgetting the knowledge obtained from the old tasks as the amount of data keeps increasing in applications. In this article, two continual learning scenarios will be proposed to describe the potential challenges in this context. Besides, based on our previous work regarding the CLeaR framework, which is short for continual learning for regression tasks, the work will be further developed to enable models to extend themselves and learn data successively. Research topics are related but not limited to developing continual deep learning algorithms, strategies for non-stationarity detection in data streams, explainable and visualizable artificial intelligence, etc. Moreover, the framework- and algorithm-related hyperparameters should be dynamically updated in applications. Forecasting experiments will be conducted based on power generation and consumption data collected from real-world applications. A series of comprehensive evaluation metrics and visualization tools can help analyze the experimental results. The proposed framework is expected to be generally applied to other constantly changing scenarios.
This workshop is the fourth issue of a series of workshops on automatic extraction of socio-political events from news, organized by the Emerging Market Welfare Project, with the support of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission and with contributions from many other prominent scholars in this field. The purpose of this series of workshops is to foster research and development of reliable, valid, robust, and practical solutions for automatically detecting descriptions of socio-political events, such as protests, riots, wars and armed conflicts, in text streams. This year workshop contributors make use of the state-of-the-art NLP technologies, such as Deep Learning, Word Embeddings and Transformers and cover a wide range of topics from text classification to news bias detection. Around 40 teams have registered and 15 teams contributed to three tasks that are i) multilingual protest news detection, ii) fine-grained classification of socio-political events, and iii) discovering Black Lives Matter protest events. The workshop also highlights two keynote and four invited talks about various aspects of creating event data sets and multi- and cross-lingual machine learning in few- and zero-shot settings.
Graph-based multi-view clustering has become an active topic due to the efficiency in characterizing both the complex structure and relationship between multimedia data. However, existing methods have the following shortcomings: (1) They are inefficient or even fail for graph learning in large scale due to the graph construction and eigen-decomposition. (2) They cannot well exploit both the complementary information and spatial structure embedded in graphs of different views. To well exploit complementary information and tackle the scalability issue plaguing graph-based multi-view clustering, we propose an efficient multiple graph learning model via a small number of anchor points and tensor Schatten p-norm minimization. Specifically, we construct a hidden and tractable large graph by anchor graph for each view and well exploit complementary information embedded in anchor graphs of different views by tensor Schatten p-norm regularizer. Finally, we develop an efficient algorithm, which scales linearly with the data size, to solve our proposed model. Extensive experimental results on several datasets indicate that our proposed method outperforms some state-of-the-art multi-view clustering algorithms.
Certain applications require the use of signals that combine both the capability to operate with low signal-to-noise ratios and the ability to support multiple users without interference. In the case where many users have very different signal-to-noise ratios, it is necessary to consider coding schemes that can be used in a multi-user environment but with different noise immunity levels. Traditional detection systems based on the correlation function and coding sequences have significant limitations in satisfying both objectives, since the cross-correlation between coded signals corresponding with different users is linked to the use of the same coded sequences length. The research topic of binary sequences that have null cross-correlation and different length has not been studied in depth, but it has potential applications in multi-user environments. In this work an algorithm to generate binary sequences completely uncorrelated with certain sets of complementary sequences is presented. The proposed algorithm is based on nested Barker sequences, and it is compared with a previous proposal based on an iterative algorithm. This approach allows to generate more diversity of sequences of different length than the iterative approach, which it makes useful for applications based on binary sequences detection and expand the horizon of many applications.
Semantic segmentation is a hot topic in computer vision where the most challenging tasks of object detection and recognition have been handling by the success of semantic segmentation approaches. We propose a concept of object-by-object learning technique to detect 11 types of facial skin lesions using semantic segmentation methods. Detecting individual skin lesion in a dense group is a challenging task, because of ambiguities in the appearance of the visual data. We observe that there exist co-occurrent visual relations between object classes (e.g., wrinkle and age spot, or papule and whitehead, etc.). In fact, rich contextual information significantly helps to handle the issue. Therefore, we propose REthinker blocks that are composed of the locally constructed convLSTM/Conv3D layers and SE module as a one-shot attention mechanism whose responsibility is to increase network's sensitivity in the local and global contextual representation that supports to capture ambiguously appeared objects and co-occurrence interactions between object classes. Experiments show that our proposed model reached MIoU of 79.46% on the test of a prepared dataset, representing a 15.34% improvement over Deeplab v3+ (MIoU of 64.12%).
Small-group learning is a broadly used methodology in human learning and shows great effectiveness in improving learning outcomes: a small group of students work together towards the same learning objective, where they express their understanding of a topic to their peers, compare their ideas, and help each other to trouble-shoot problems. We are interested in investigating whether this powerful learning technique can be borrowed from humans to improve the learning abilities of machines. We propose a novel learning approach called small-group learning (SGL). In our approach, each learner uses its intermediately trained model to generate a pseudo-labeled dataset and re-trains its model using pseudo-labeled datasets generated by other learners. We propose a multi-level optimization framework to formulate SGL which involves three learning stages: learners train their network weights independently; learners train their network weights collaboratively via mutual pseudo-labeling; learners improve their architectures by minimizing validation losses. We develop an efficient algorithm to solve the SGL problem. We apply our approach to neural architecture search and achieve significant improvement on CIFAR-100, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet.
Ultra-lightweight model design is an important topic for the deployment of existing speech enhancement and source separation techniques on low-resource platforms. Various lightweight model design paradigms have been proposed in recent years; however, most models still suffer from finding a balance between model size, model complexity, and model performance. In this paper, we propose the group communication with context codec (GC3) design to decrease both model size and complexity without sacrificing the model performance. Group communication splits a high-dimensional feature into groups of low-dimensional features and applies a module to capture the inter-group dependency. A model can then be applied to the groups in parallel with a significantly smaller width. A context codec is applied to decrease the length of a sequential feature, where a context encoder compresses the temporal context of local features into a single feature representing the global characteristics of the context, and a context decoder decompresses the transformed global features back to the context features. Experimental results show that GC3 can achieve on par or better performance than a wide range of baseline architectures with as small as 2.5% model size.