Detecting small obstacles on the road ahead is a critical part of the driving task which has to be mastered by fully autonomous cars. In this paper, we present a method based on stereo vision to reliably detect such obstacles from a moving vehicle. The proposed algorithm performs statistical hypothesis tests in disparity space directly on stereo image data, assessing freespace and obstacle hypotheses on independent local patches. This detection approach does not depend on a global road model and handles both static and moving obstacles. For evaluation, we employ a novel lost-cargo image sequence dataset comprising more than two thousand frames with pixelwise annotations of obstacle and free-space and provide a thorough comparison to several stereo-based baseline methods. The dataset will be made available to the community to foster further research on this important topic. The proposed approach outperforms all considered baselines in our evaluations on both pixel and object level and runs at frame rates of up to 20 Hz on 2 mega-pixel stereo imagery. Small obstacles down to the height of 5 cm can successfully be detected at 20 m distance at low false positive rates.
Representation and learning of commonsense knowledge is one of the foundational problems in the quest to enable deep language understanding. This issue is particularly challenging for understanding casual and correlational relationships between events. While this topic has received a lot of interest in the NLP community, research has been hindered by the lack of a proper evaluation framework. This paper attempts to address this problem with a new framework for evaluating story understanding and script learning: the 'Story Cloze Test'. This test requires a system to choose the correct ending to a four-sentence story. We created a new corpus of ~50k five-sentence commonsense stories, ROCStories, to enable this evaluation. This corpus is unique in two ways: (1) it captures a rich set of causal and temporal commonsense relations between daily events, and (2) it is a high quality collection of everyday life stories that can also be used for story generation. Experimental evaluation shows that a host of baselines and state-of-the-art models based on shallow language understanding struggle to achieve a high score on the Story Cloze Test. We discuss these implications for script and story learning, and offer suggestions for deeper language understanding.
Floating-point computations are quickly finding their way in the design of safety- and mission-critical systems, despite the fact that designing floating-point algorithms is significantly more difficult than designing integer algorithms. For this reason, verification and validation of floating-point computations is a hot research topic. An important verification technique, especially in some industrial sectors, is testing. However, generating test data for floating-point intensive programs proved to be a challenging problem. Existing approaches usually resort to random or search-based test data generation, but without symbolic reasoning it is almost impossible to generate test inputs that execute complex paths controlled by floating-point computations. Moreover, as constraint solvers over the reals or the rationals do not natively support the handling of rounding errors, the need arises for efficient constraint solvers over floating-point domains. In this paper, we present and fully justify improved algorithms for the propagation of arithmetic IEEE 754 binary floating-point constraints. The key point of these algorithms is a generalization of an idea by B. Marre and C. Michel that exploits a property of the representation of floating-point numbers.
Object extraction from remote sensing images has long been an intensive research topic in the field of surveying and mapping. Most existing methods are devoted to handling just one type of object and little attention has been paid to improving the computational efficiency. In recent years, level set evolution (LSE) has been shown to be very promising for object extraction in the community of image processing and computer vision because it can handle topological changes automatically while achieving high accuracy. However, the application of state-of-the-art LSEs is compromised by laborious parameter tuning and expensive computation. In this paper, we proposed two fast LSEs for man-made object extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images. The traditional mean curvature-based regularization term is replaced by a Gaussian kernel and it is mathematically sound to do that. Thus a larger time step can be used in the numerical scheme to expedite the proposed LSEs. In contrast to existing methods, the proposed LSEs are significantly faster. Most importantly, they involve much fewer parameters while achieving better performance. The advantages of the proposed LSEs over other state-of-the-art approaches have been verified by a range of experiments.
Literature on Constraint Satisfaction exhibits the definition of several structural properties that can be possessed by CSPs, like (in)consistency, substitutability or interchangeability. Current tools for constraint solving typically detect such properties efficiently by means of incomplete yet effective algorithms, and use them to reduce the search space and boost search. In this paper, we provide a unifying framework encompassing most of the properties known so far, both in CSP and other fields literature, and shed light on the semantical relationships among them. This gives a unified and comprehensive view of the topic, allows new, unknown, properties to emerge, and clarifies the computational complexity of the various detection problems. In particular, among the others, two new concepts, fixability and removability emerge, that come out to be the ideal characterisations of values that may be safely assigned or removed from a variables domain, while preserving problem satisfiability. These two notions subsume a large number of known properties, including inconsistency, substitutability and others. Because of the computational intractability of all the property-detection problems, by following the CSP approach we then determine a number of relaxations which provide sufficient conditions for their tractability. In particular, we exploit forms of language restrictions and local reasoning.
Our day-to-day life has always been influenced by what people think. Ideas and opinions of others have always affected our own opinions. The explosion of Web 2.0 has led to increased activity in Podcasting, Blogging, Tagging, Contributing to RSS, Social Bookmarking, and Social Networking. As a result there has been an eruption of interest in people to mine these vast resources of data for opinions. Sentiment Analysis or Opinion Mining is the computational treatment of opinions, sentiments and subjectivity of text. In this report, we take a look at the various challenges and applications of Sentiment Analysis. We will discuss in details various approaches to perform a computational treatment of sentiments and opinions. Various supervised or data-driven techniques to SA like Na\"ive Byes, Maximum Entropy, SVM, and Voted Perceptrons will be discussed and their strengths and drawbacks will be touched upon. We will also see a new dimension of analyzing sentiments by Cognitive Psychology mainly through the work of Janyce Wiebe, where we will see ways to detect subjectivity, perspective in narrative and understanding the discourse structure. We will also study some specific topics in Sentiment Analysis and the contemporary works in those areas.
"What other people think" has always been an important piece of information during various decision-making processes. Today people frequently make their opinions available via the Internet, and as a result, the Web has become an excellent source for gathering consumer opinions. There are now numerous Web resources containing such opinions, e.g., product reviews forums, discussion groups, and Blogs. But, due to the large amount of information and the wide range of sources, it is essentially impossible for a customer to read all of the reviews and make an informed decision on whether to purchase the product. It is also difficult for the manufacturer or seller of a product to accurately monitor customer opinions. For this reason, mining customer reviews, or opinion mining, has become an important issue for research in Web information extraction. One of the important topics in this research area is the identification of opinion polarity. The opinion polarity of a review is usually expressed with values 'positive', 'negative' or 'neutral'. We propose a technique for identifying polarity of reviews by identifying the polarity of the adjectives that appear in them. Our evaluation shows the technique can provide accuracy in the area of 73%, which is well above the 58%-64% provided by naive Bayesian classifiers.
Data similarity (or distance) computation is a fundamental research topic which fosters a variety of similarity-based machine learning and data mining applications. In big data analytics, it is impractical to compute the exact similarity of data instances due to high computational cost. To this end, the Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) technique has been proposed to provide accurate estimators for various similarity measures between sets or vectors in an efficient manner without the learning process. Structured data (e.g., sequences, trees and graphs), which are composed of elements and relations between the elements, are commonly seen in the real world, but the traditional LSH algorithms cannot preserve the structure information represented as relations between elements. In order to conquer the issue, researchers have been devoted to the family of the hierarchical LSH algorithms. In this paper, we explore the present progress of the research into hierarchical LSH from the following perspectives: 1) Data structures, where we review various hierarchical LSH algorithms for three typical data structures and uncover their inherent connections; 2) Applications, where we review the hierarchical LSH algorithms in multiple application scenarios; 3) Challenges, where we discuss some potential challenges as future directions.
Outlier detection is an important topic in machine learning and has been used in a wide range of applications. Outliers are objects that are few in number and deviate from the majority of objects. As a result of these two properties, we show that outliers are susceptible to a mechanism called fluctuation. This article proposes a method called fluctuation-based outlier detection (FBOD) that achieves a low linear time complexity and detects outliers purely based on the concept of fluctuation without employing any distance, density or isolation measure. Fundamentally different from all existing methods. FBOD first converts the Euclidean structure datasets into graphs by using random links, then propagates the feature value according to the connection of the graph. Finally, by comparing the difference between the fluctuation of an object and its neighbors, FBOD determines the object with a larger difference as an outlier. The results of experiments comparing FBOD with seven state-of-the-art algorithms on eight real-world tabular datasets and three video datasets show that FBOD outperforms its competitors in the majority of cases and that FBOD has only 5% of the execution time of the fastest algorithm. The experiment codes are available at: https://github.com/FluctuationOD/Fluctuation-based-Outlier-Detection.
Few-shot learning (FSL) is an important and topical problem in computer vision that has motivated extensive research into numerous methods spanning from sophisticated meta-learning methods to simple transfer learning baselines. We seek to push the limits of a simple-but-effective pipeline for more realistic and practical settings of few-shot image classification. To this end, we explore few-shot learning from the perspective of neural network architecture, as well as a three stage pipeline of network updates under different data supplies, where unsupervised external data is considered for pre-training, base categories are used to simulate few-shot tasks for meta-training, and the scarcely labelled data of an novel task is taken for fine-tuning. We investigate questions such as: (1) How pre-training on external data benefits FSL? (2) How state-of-the-art transformer architectures can be exploited? and (3) How fine-tuning mitigates domain shift? Ultimately, we show that a simple transformer-based pipeline yields surprisingly good performance on standard benchmarks such as Mini-ImageNet, CIFAR-FS, CDFSL and Meta-Dataset. Our code and demo are available at https://hushell.github.io/pmf.