Many features from texts and languages can now be inferred from statistical analyses using concepts from complex networks and dynamical systems. In this paper we quantify how topological properties of word co-occurrence networks and intermittency (or burstiness) in word distribution depend on the style of authors. Our database contains 40 books from 8 authors who lived in the 19th and 20th centuries, for which the following network measurements were obtained: clustering coefficient, average shortest path lengths, and betweenness. We found that the two factors with stronger dependency on the authors were the skewness in the distribution of word intermittency and the average shortest paths. Other factors such as the betweeness and the Zipf's law exponent show only weak dependency on authorship. Also assessed was the contribution from each measurement to authorship recognition using three machine learning methods. The best performance was a ca. 65 % accuracy upon combining complex network and intermittency features with the nearest neighbor algorithm. From a detailed analysis of the interdependence of the various metrics it is concluded that the methods used here are complementary for providing short- and long-scale perspectives of texts, which are useful for applications such as identification of topical words and information retrieval.
The topic of generalizing machine learning models learned on a collection of source domains to unknown target domains is challenging. While many domain generalization (DG) methods have achieved promising results, they primarily rely on the source domains at train-time without manipulating the target domains at test-time. Thus, it is still possible that those methods can overfit to source domains and perform poorly on target domains. Driven by the observation that domains are strongly related to styles, we argue that reducing the gap between source and target styles can boost models' generalizability. To solve the dilemma of having no access to the target domain during training, we introduce Test-time Fourier Style Calibration (TF-Cal) for calibrating the target domain style on the fly during testing. To access styles, we utilize Fourier transformation to decompose features into amplitude (style) features and phase (semantic) features. Furthermore, we present an effective technique to Augment Amplitude Features (AAF) to complement TF-Cal. Extensive experiments on several popular DG benchmarks and a segmentation dataset for medical images demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Sentiment Analysis provides an opportunity to understand the subject(s), especially in the digital age, due to an abundance of public data and effective algorithms. Cybersecurity is a subject where opinions are plentiful and differing in the public domain. This descriptive research analyzed cybersecurity content on Twitter and Reddit to measure its sentiment, positive or negative, or neutral. The data from Twitter and Reddit was amassed via technology-specific APIs during a selected timeframe to create datasets, which were then analyzed individually for their sentiment by VADER, an NLP (Natural Language Processing) algorithm. A random sample of cybersecurity content (ten tweets and posts) was also classified for sentiments by twenty human annotators to evaluate the performance of VADER. Cybersecurity content on Twitter was at least 48% positive, and Reddit was at least 26.5% positive. The positive or neutral content far outweighed negative sentiments across both platforms. When compared to human classification, which was considered the standard or source of truth, VADER produced 60% accuracy for Twitter and 70% for Reddit in assessing the sentiment; in other words, some agreement between algorithm and human classifiers. Overall, the goal was to explore an uninhibited research topic about cybersecurity sentiment
Conditional image generation is an active research topic including text2image and image translation. Recently image manipulation with linguistic instruction brings new challenges of multimodal conditional generation. However, traditional conditional image generation models mainly focus on generating high-quality and visually realistic images, and lack resolving the partial consistency between image and instruction. To address this issue, we propose an Increment Reasoning Generative Adversarial Network (IR-GAN), which aims to reason the consistency between visual increment in images and semantic increment in instructions. First, we introduce the word-level and instruction-level instruction encoders to learn user's intention from history-correlated instructions as semantic increment. Second, we embed the representation of semantic increment into that of source image for generating target image, where source image plays the role of referring auxiliary. Finally, we propose a reasoning discriminator to measure the consistency between visual increment and semantic increment, which purifies user's intention and guarantees the good logic of generated target image. Extensive experiments and visualization conducted on two datasets show the effectiveness of IR-GAN.
Open Set Recognition (OSR) has been an emerging topic. Besides recognizing predefined classes, the system needs to reject the unknowns. Prototype learning is a potential manner to handle the problem, as its ability to improve intra-class compactness of representations is much needed in discrimination between the known and the unknowns. In this work, we propose a novel Prototype Mining And Learning (PMAL) framework. It has a prototype mining mechanism before the phase of optimizing embedding space, explicitly considering two crucial properties, namely high-quality and diversity of the prototype set. Concretely, a set of high-quality candidates are firstly extracted from training samples based on data uncertainty learning, avoiding the interference from unexpected noise. Considering the multifarious appearance of objects even in a single category, a diversity-based strategy for prototype set filtering is proposed. Accordingly, the embedding space can be better optimized to discriminate therein the predefined classes and between known and unknowns. Extensive experiments verify the two good characteristics (i.e., high-quality and diversity) embraced in prototype mining, and show the remarkable performance of the proposed framework compared to state-of-the-arts.
One of the most pressing issues that have arisen due to the rapid growth of the Internet is known as information overloading. Simplifying the relevant information in the form of a summary will assist many people because the material on any topic is plentiful on the Internet. Manually summarising massive amounts of text is quite challenging for humans. So, it has increased the need for more complex and powerful summarizers. Researchers have been trying to improve approaches for creating summaries since the 1950s, such that the machine-generated summary matches the human-created summary. This study provides a detailed state-of-the-art analysis of text summarization concepts such as summarization approaches, techniques used, standard datasets, evaluation metrics and future scopes for research. The most commonly accepted approaches are extractive and abstractive, studied in detail in this work. Evaluating the summary and increasing the development of reusable resources and infrastructure aids in comparing and replicating findings, adding competition to improve the outcomes. Different evaluation methods of generated summaries are also discussed in this study. Finally, at the end of this study, several challenges and research opportunities related to text summarization research are mentioned that may be useful for potential researchers working in this area.
Mining the latent intentions from large volumes of natural language inputs is a key step to help data analysts design and refine Intelligent Virtual Assistants (IVAs) for customer service and sales support. We created a flexible and scalable clustering pipeline within the Verint Intent Manager (VIM) that integrates the fine-tuning of language models, a high performing k-NN library and community detection techniques to help analysts quickly surface and organize relevant user intentions from conversational texts. The fine-tuning step is necessary because pre-trained language models cannot encode texts to efficiently surface particular clustering structures when the target texts are from an unseen domain or the clustering task is not topic detection. We describe the pipeline and demonstrate its performance using BERT on three real-world text mining tasks. As deployed in the VIM application, this clustering pipeline produces high quality results, improving the performance of data analysts and reducing the time it takes to surface intentions from customer service data, thereby reducing the time it takes to build and deploy IVAs in new domains.
Pedestrian crossing prediction has been a topic of active research, resulting in many new algorithmic solutions. While measuring the overall progress of those solutions over time tends to be more and more established due to the new publicly available benchmark and standardized evaluation procedures, knowing how well existing predictors react to unseen data remains an unanswered question. This evaluation is imperative as serviceable crossing behavior predictors should be set to work in various scenarii without compromising pedestrian safety due to misprediction. To this end, we conduct a study based on direct cross-dataset evaluation. Our experiments show that current state-of-the-art pedestrian behavior predictors generalize poorly in cross-dataset evaluation scenarii, regardless of their robustness during a direct training-test set evaluation setting. In the light of what we observe, we argue that the future of pedestrian crossing prediction, e.g. reliable and generalizable implementations, should not be about tailoring models, trained with very little available data, and tested in a classical train-test scenario with the will to infer anything about their behavior in real life. It should be about evaluating models in a cross-dataset setting while considering their uncertainty estimates under domain shift.
TeraHertz (THz) band communications are envisioned as a key technology for 6G and Beyond. As a fundamental wireless infrastructure, THz communication can boost abundant promising applications. In 2014, our team published two comprehensive roadmaps for the development and progress of THz communication networks , , which helped the research community to start research on this subject afterwards. In particular, this topic became very important and appealing to the research community due to 6G wireless systems design and development in recent years. Many papers are getting published covering different aspects of wireless systems using the THz band. With this paper, our aim is looking back to the last decade and revisiting the old problems and pointing out what has been achieved in the research community so far. Furthermore, in this paper still to be investigated new research challenges for the THz band communication systems are presented by covering diverse subtopics such as from perspectives of devices, channel behavior, communication and networking problems, physical testbeds and demonstration systems. The key aspects presented in this paper will enable THz communications as a pillar of 6G and Beyond wireless systems in the next decade.