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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Lessons from the AdKDD'21 Privacy-Preserving ML Challenge

Jan 31, 2022
Eustache Diemert, Romain Fabre, Alexandre Gilotte, Fei Jia, Basile Leparmentier, Jérémie Mary, Zhonghua Qu, Ugo Tanielian, Hui Yang

Designing data sharing mechanisms providing performance and strong privacy guarantees is a hot topic for the Online Advertising industry. Namely, a prominent proposal discussed under the Improving Web Advertising Business Group at W3C only allows sharing advertising signals through aggregated, differentially private reports of past displays. To study this proposal extensively, an open Privacy-Preserving Machine Learning Challenge took place at AdKDD'21, a premier workshop on Advertising Science with data provided by advertising company Criteo. In this paper, we describe the challenge tasks, the structure of the available datasets, report the challenge results, and enable its full reproducibility. A key finding is that learning models on large, aggregated data in the presence of a small set of unaggregated data points can be surprisingly efficient and cheap. We also run additional experiments to observe the sensitivity of winning methods to different parameters such as privacy budget or quantity of available privileged side information. We conclude that the industry needs either alternate designs for private data sharing or a breakthrough in learning with aggregated data only to keep ad relevance at a reasonable level.


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Arguments about Highly Reliable Agent Designs as a Useful Path to Artificial Intelligence Safety

Jan 09, 2022
Issa Rice, David Manheim

Several different approaches exist for ensuring the safety of future Transformative Artificial Intelligence (TAI) or Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) systems, and proponents of different approaches have made different and debated claims about the importance or usefulness of their work in the near term, and for future systems. Highly Reliable Agent Designs (HRAD) is one of the most controversial and ambitious approaches, championed by the Machine Intelligence Research Institute, among others, and various arguments have been made about whether and how it reduces risks from future AI systems. In order to reduce confusion in the debate about AI safety, here we build on a previous discussion by Rice which collects and presents four central arguments which are used to justify HRAD as a path towards safety of AI systems. We have titled the arguments (1) incidental utility,(2) deconfusion, (3) precise specification, and (4) prediction. Each of these makes different, partly conflicting claims about how future AI systems can be risky. We have explained the assumptions and claims based on a review of published and informal literature, along with consultation with experts who have stated positions on the topic. Finally, we have briefly outlined arguments against each approach and against the agenda overall.

* 14 pages and 2 figures + 6 pages for references and appendices 

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Edge-Enhanced Global Disentangled Graph Neural Network for Sequential Recommendation

Nov 23, 2021
Yunyi Li, Pengpeng Zhao, Guanfeng Liu, Yanchi Liu, Victor S. Sheng, Jiajie Xu, Xiaofang Zhou

Sequential recommendation has been a widely popular topic of recommender systems. Existing works have contributed to enhancing the prediction ability of sequential recommendation systems based on various methods, such as recurrent networks and self-attention mechanisms. However, they fail to discover and distinguish various relationships between items, which could be underlying factors which motivate user behaviors. In this paper, we propose an Edge-Enhanced Global Disentangled Graph Neural Network (EGD-GNN) model to capture the relation information between items for global item representation and local user intention learning. At the global level, we build a global-link graph over all sequences to model item relationships. Then a channel-aware disentangled learning layer is designed to decompose edge information into different channels, which can be aggregated to represent the target item from its neighbors. At the local level, we apply a variational auto-encoder framework to learn user intention over the current sequence. We evaluate our proposed method on three real-world datasets. Experimental results show that our model can get a crucial improvement over state-of-the-art baselines and is able to distinguish item features.

* 13 pages, 7 figures, 5 tables. Submitted to ICDE 2022 

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Domain Generalization on Efficient Acoustic Scene Classification using Residual Normalization

Nov 12, 2021
Byeonggeun Kim, Seunghan Yang, Jangho Kim, Simyung Chang

It is a practical research topic how to deal with multi-device audio inputs by a single acoustic scene classification system with efficient design. In this work, we propose Residual Normalization, a novel feature normalization method that uses frequency-wise normalization % instance normalization with a shortcut path to discard unnecessary device-specific information without losing useful information for classification. Moreover, we introduce an efficient architecture, BC-ResNet-ASC, a modified version of the baseline architecture with a limited receptive field. BC-ResNet-ASC outperforms the baseline architecture even though it contains the small number of parameters. Through three model compression schemes: pruning, quantization, and knowledge distillation, we can reduce model complexity further while mitigating the performance degradation. The proposed system achieves an average test accuracy of 76.3% in TAU Urban Acoustic Scenes 2020 Mobile, development dataset with 315k parameters, and average test accuracy of 75.3% after compression to 61.0KB of non-zero parameters. The proposed method won the 1st place in DCASE 2021 challenge, TASK1A.

* Proceedings of the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2021 Workshop (DCASE2021) 

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A causal view on compositional data

Jun 21, 2021
Elisabeth Ailer, Christian L. Müller, Niki Kilbertus

Many scientific datasets are compositional in nature. Important examples include species abundances in ecology, rock compositions in geology, topic compositions in large-scale text corpora, and sequencing count data in molecular biology. Here, we provide a causal view on compositional data in an instrumental variable setting where the composition acts as the cause. Throughout, we pay particular attention to the interpretation of compositional causes from the viewpoint of interventions and crisply articulate potential pitfalls for practitioners. Focusing on modern high-dimensional microbiome sequencing data as a timely illustrative use case, our analysis first reveals that popular one-dimensional information-theoretic summary statistics, such as diversity and richness, may be insufficient for drawing causal conclusions from ecological data. Instead, we advocate for multivariate alternatives using statistical data transformations and regression techniques that take the special structure of the compositional sample space into account. In a comparative analysis on synthetic and semi-synthetic data we show the advantages and limitations of our proposal. We posit that our framework may provide a useful starting point for cause-effect estimation in the context of compositional data.

* Code available on https://github.com/EAiler/comp-iv 

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Sound-to-Imagination: Unsupervised Crossmodal Translation Using Deep Dense Network Architecture

Jun 02, 2021
Leonardo A. Fanzeres, Climent Nadeu

The motivation of our research is to develop a sound-to-image (S2I) translation system for enabling a human receiver to visually infer the occurrence of sound related events. We expect the computer to 'imagine' the scene from the captured sound, generating original images that picture the sound emitting source. Previous studies on similar topics opted for simplified approaches using data with low content diversity and/or strong supervision. Differently, we propose to perform unsupervised S2I translation using thousands of distinct and unknown scenes, with slightly pre-cleaned data, just enough to guarantee aural-visual semantic coherence. To that end, we employ conditional generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a deep densely connected generator. Besides, we implemented a moving-average adversarial loss to address GANs training instability. Though the specified S2I translation problem is quite challenging, we were able to generalize the translator model enough to obtain more than 14%, in average, of interpretable and semantically coherent images translated from unknown sounds. Additionally, we present a solution using informativity classifiers to perform quantitative evaluation of S2I translation.


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Improved Exploring Starts by Kernel Density Estimation-Based State-Space Coverage Acceleration in Reinforcement Learning

May 19, 2021
Maximilian Schenke, Oliver Wallscheid

Reinforcement learning (RL) is currently a popular research topic in control engineering and has the potential to make its way to industrial and commercial applications. Corresponding RL controllers are trained in direct interaction with the controlled system, rendering them data-driven and performance-oriented solutions. The best practice of exploring starts (ES) is used by default to support the learning process via randomly picked initial states. However, this method might deliver strongly biased results if the system's dynamic and constraints lead to unfavorable sample distributions in the state space (e.g., condensed sample accumulation in certain state-space areas). To overcome this issue, a kernel density estimation-based state-space coverage acceleration (DESSCA) is proposed, which improves the ES concept by prioritizing infrequently visited states for a more balanced coverage of the state space during training. Considered test scenarios are mountain car, cartpole and electric motor control environments. Using DQN and DDPG as exemplary RL algorithms, it can be shown that DESSCA is a simple yet effective algorithmic extension to the established ES approach.


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Person Search Challenges and Solutions: A Survey

May 01, 2021
Xiangtan Lin, Pengzhen Ren, Yun Xiao, Xiaojun Chang, Alex Hauptmann

Person search has drawn increasing attention due to its real-world applications and research significance. Person search aims to find a probe person in a gallery of scene images with a wide range of applications, such as criminals search, multicamera tracking, missing person search, etc. Early person search works focused on image-based person search, which uses person image as the search query. Text-based person search is another major person search category that uses free-form natural language as the search query. Person search is challenging, and corresponding solutions are diverse and complex. Therefore, systematic surveys on this topic are essential. This paper surveyed the recent works on image-based and text-based person search from the perspective of challenges and solutions. Specifically, we provide a brief analysis of highly influential person search methods considering the three significant challenges: the discriminative person features, the query-person gap, and the detection-identification inconsistency. We summarise and compare evaluation results. Finally, we discuss open issues and some promising future research directions.

* 8 pages; Accepted by IJCAI 2021 Survey Track 

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SRA-LSTM: Social Relationship Attention LSTM for Human Trajectory Prediction

Mar 31, 2021
Yusheng Peng, Gaofeng Zhang, Jun Shi, Benzhu Xu, Liping Zheng

Pedestrian trajectory prediction for surveillance video is one of the important research topics in the field of computer vision and a key technology of intelligent surveillance systems. Social relationship among pedestrians is a key factor influencing pedestrian walking patterns but was mostly ignored in the literature. Pedestrians with different social relationships play different roles in the motion decision of target pedestrian. Motivated by this idea, we propose a Social Relationship Attention LSTM (SRA-LSTM) model to predict future trajectories. We design a social relationship encoder to obtain the representation of their social relationship through the relative position between each pair of pedestrians. Afterwards, the social relationship feature and latent movements are adopted to acquire the social relationship attention of this pair of pedestrians. Social interaction modeling is achieved by utilizing social relationship attention to aggregate movement information from neighbor pedestrians. Experimental results on two public walking pedestrian video datasets (ETH and UCY), our model achieves superior performance compared with state-of-the-art methods. Contrast experiments with other attention methods also demonstrate the effectiveness of social relationship attention.

* Submitted to Neural Computing and Applications 

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