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"Topic": models, code, and papers

The Social Dynamics of Language Change in Online Networks

Sep 07, 2016
Rahul Goel, Sandeep Soni, Naman Goyal, John Paparrizos, Hanna Wallach, Fernando Diaz, Jacob Eisenstein

Language change is a complex social phenomenon, revealing pathways of communication and sociocultural influence. But, while language change has long been a topic of study in sociolinguistics, traditional linguistic research methods rely on circumstantial evidence, estimating the direction of change from differences between older and younger speakers. In this paper, we use a data set of several million Twitter users to track language changes in progress. First, we show that language change can be viewed as a form of social influence: we observe complex contagion for phonetic spellings and "netspeak" abbreviations (e.g., lol), but not for older dialect markers from spoken language. Next, we test whether specific types of social network connections are more influential than others, using a parametric Hawkes process model. We find that tie strength plays an important role: densely embedded social ties are significantly better conduits of linguistic influence. Geographic locality appears to play a more limited role: we find relatively little evidence to support the hypothesis that individuals are more influenced by geographically local social ties, even in their usage of geographical dialect markers.

* This paper appears in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Informatics (SocInfo16). The final publication is available at springer.com 

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Understanding User Instructions by Utilizing Open Knowledge for Service Robots

Jun 09, 2016
Dongcai Lu, Feng Wu, Xiaoping Chen

Understanding user instructions in natural language is an active research topic in AI and robotics. Typically, natural user instructions are high-level and can be reduced into low-level tasks expressed in common verbs (e.g., `take', `get', `put'). For robots understanding such instructions, one of the key challenges is to process high-level user instructions and achieve the specified tasks with robots' primitive actions. To address this, we propose novel algorithms by utilizing semantic roles of common verbs defined in semantic dictionaries and integrating multiple open knowledge to generate task plans. Specifically, we present a new method for matching and recovering semantics of user instructions and a novel task planner that exploits functional knowledge of robot's action model. To verify and evaluate our approach, we implemented a prototype system using knowledge from several open resources. Experiments on our system confirmed the correctness and efficiency of our algorithms. Notably, our system has been deployed in the KeJia robot, which participated the annual [email protected] competitions in the past three years and achieved encouragingly high scores in the benchmark tests.


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Anytime Coalition Structure Generation with Worst Case Guarantees

Oct 05, 1998
Tuomas Sandholm, Kate Larson, Martin Andersson, Onn Shehory, Fernando Tohme

Coalition formation is a key topic in multiagent systems. One would prefer a coalition structure that maximizes the sum of the values of the coalitions, but often the number of coalition structures is too large to allow exhaustive search for the optimal one. But then, can the coalition structure found via a partial search be guaranteed to be within a bound from optimum? We show that none of the previous coalition structure generation algorithms can establish any bound because they search fewer nodes than a threshold that we show necessary for establishing a bound. We present an algorithm that establishes a tight bound within this minimal amount of search, and show that any other algorithm would have to search strictly more. The fraction of nodes needed to be searched approaches zero as the number of agents grows. If additional time remains, our anytime algorithm searches further, and establishes a progressively lower tight bound. Surprisingly, just searching one more node drops the bound in half. As desired, our algorithm lowers the bound rapidly early on, and exhibits diminishing returns to computation. It also drastically outperforms its obvious contenders. Finally, we show how to distribute the desired search across self-interested manipulative agents.

* Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp 46-53, Madison, WI, July 1998 

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Byzantine Machine Learning Made Easy by Resilient Averaging of Momentums

May 24, 2022
Sadegh Farhadkhani, Rachid Guerraoui, Nirupam Gupta, Rafael Pinot, John Stephan

Byzantine resilience emerged as a prominent topic within the distributed machine learning community. Essentially, the goal is to enhance distributed optimization algorithms, such as distributed SGD, in a way that guarantees convergence despite the presence of some misbehaving (a.k.a., {\em Byzantine}) workers. Although a myriad of techniques addressing the problem have been proposed, the field arguably rests on fragile foundations. These techniques are hard to prove correct and rely on assumptions that are (a) quite unrealistic, i.e., often violated in practice, and (b) heterogeneous, i.e., making it difficult to compare approaches. We present \emph{RESAM (RESilient Averaging of Momentums)}, a unified framework that makes it simple to establish optimal Byzantine resilience, relying only on standard machine learning assumptions. Our framework is mainly composed of two operators: \emph{resilient averaging} at the server and \emph{distributed momentum} at the workers. We prove a general theorem stating the convergence of distributed SGD under RESAM. Interestingly, demonstrating and comparing the convergence of many existing techniques become direct corollaries of our theorem, without resorting to stringent assumptions. We also present an empirical evaluation of the practical relevance of RESAM.

* Accepted at ICML 2022 

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Community Question Answering Entity Linking via Leveraging Auxiliary Data

May 24, 2022
Yuhan Li, Wei Shen, Jianbo Gao, Yadong Wang

Community Question Answering (CQA) platforms contain plenty of CQA texts (i.e., questions and answers corresponding to the question) where named entities appear ubiquitously. In this paper, we define a new task of CQA entity linking (CQAEL) as linking the textual entity mentions detected from CQA texts with their corresponding entities in a knowledge base. This task can facilitate many downstream applications including expert finding and knowledge base enrichment. Traditional entity linking methods mainly focus on linking entities in news documents, and are suboptimal over this new task of CQAEL since they cannot effectively leverage various informative auxiliary data involved in the CQA platform to aid entity linking, such as parallel answers and two types of meta-data (i.e., topic tags and users). To remedy this crucial issue, we propose a novel transformer-based framework to effectively harness the knowledge delivered by different kinds of auxiliary data to promote the linking performance. We validate the superiority of our framework through extensive experiments over a newly released CQAEL data set against state-of-the-art entity linking methods.

* Accepted by IJCAI2022 

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Preference Enhanced Social Influence Modeling for Network-Aware Cascade Prediction

Apr 18, 2022
Likang Wu, Hao Wang, Enhong Chen, Zhi Li, Hongke Zhao, Jianhui Ma

Network-aware cascade size prediction aims to predict the final reposted number of user-generated information via modeling the propagation process in social networks. Estimating the user's reposting probability by social influence, namely state activation plays an important role in the information diffusion process. Therefore, Graph Neural Networks (GNN), which can simulate the information interaction between nodes, has been proved as an effective scheme to handle this prediction task. However, existing studies including GNN-based models usually neglect a vital factor of user's preference which influences the state activation deeply. To that end, we propose a novel framework to promote cascade size prediction by enhancing the user preference modeling according to three stages, i.e., preference topics generation, preference shift modeling, and social influence activation. Our end-to-end method makes the user activating process of information diffusion more adaptive and accurate. Extensive experiments on two large-scale real-world datasets have clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed model compared to state-of-the-art baselines.

* SIGIR 2022 

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Fantastic Style Channels and Where to Find Them: A Submodular Framework for Discovering Diverse Directions in GANs

Mar 31, 2022
Enis Simsar, Umut Kocasari, Ezgi Gülperi Er, Pinar Yanardag

The discovery of interpretable directions in the latent spaces of pre-trained GAN models has recently become a popular topic. In particular, StyleGAN2 has enabled various image generation and manipulation tasks due to its rich and disentangled latent spaces. The discovery of such directions is typically done either in a supervised manner, which requires annotated data for each desired manipulation or in an unsupervised manner, which requires a manual effort to identify the directions. As a result, existing work typically finds only a handful of directions in which controllable edits can be made. In this study, we design a novel submodular framework that finds the most representative and diverse subset of directions in the latent space of StyleGAN2. Our approach takes advantage of the latent space of channel-wise style parameters, so-called style space, in which we cluster channels that perform similar manipulations into groups. Our framework promotes diversity by using the notion of clusters and can be efficiently solved with a greedy optimization scheme. We evaluate our framework with qualitative and quantitative experiments and show that our method finds more diverse and disentangled directions. Our project page can be found at http://catlab-team.github.io/fantasticstyles.


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UMT: Unified Multi-modal Transformers for Joint Video Moment Retrieval and Highlight Detection

Mar 27, 2022
Ye Liu, Siyuan Li, Yang Wu, Chang Wen Chen, Ying Shan, Xiaohu Qie

Finding relevant moments and highlights in videos according to natural language queries is a natural and highly valuable common need in the current video content explosion era. Nevertheless, jointly conducting moment retrieval and highlight detection is an emerging research topic, even though its component problems and some related tasks have already been studied for a while. In this paper, we present the first unified framework, named Unified Multi-modal Transformers (UMT), capable of realizing such joint optimization while can also be easily degenerated for solving individual problems. As far as we are aware, this is the first scheme to integrate multi-modal (visual-audio) learning for either joint optimization or the individual moment retrieval task, and tackles moment retrieval as a keypoint detection problem using a novel query generator and query decoder. Extensive comparisons with existing methods and ablation studies on QVHighlights, Charades-STA, YouTube Highlights, and TVSum datasets demonstrate the effectiveness, superiority, and flexibility of the proposed method under various settings. Source code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/TencentARC/UMT.

* Accepted to Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2022) 

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Motif Mining: Finding and Summarizing Remixed Image Content

Mar 17, 2022
William Theisen, Daniel Gonzalez Cedre, Zachariah Carmichael, Daniel Moreira, Tim Weninger, Walter Scheirer

On the internet, images are no longer static; they have become dynamic content. Thanks to the availability of smartphones with cameras and easy-to-use editing software, images can be remixed (i.e., redacted, edited, and recombined with other content) on-the-fly and with a world-wide audience that can repeat the process. From digital art to memes, the evolution of images through time is now an important topic of study for digital humanists, social scientists, and media forensics specialists. However, because typical data sets in computer vision are composed of static content, the development of automated algorithms to analyze remixed content has been limited. In this paper, we introduce the idea of Motif Mining - the process of finding and summarizing remixed image content in large collections of unlabeled and unsorted data. In this paper, this idea is formalized and a reference implementation is introduced. Experiments are conducted on three meme-style data sets, including a newly collected set associated with the information war in the Russo-Ukrainian conflict. The proposed motif mining approach is able to identify related remixed content that, when compared to similar approaches, more closely aligns with the preferences and expectations of human observers.

* 41 pages, 21 figures 

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Building AI Innovation Labs together with Companies

Mar 16, 2022
Jens Heidrich, Andreas Jedlitschka, Adam Trendowicz, Anna Maria Vollmer

In the future, most companies will be confronted with the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and will have to decide on their strategy in this regards. Currently, a lot of companies are thinking about whether and how AI and the usage of data will impact their business model and what potential use cases could look like. One of the biggest challenges lies in coming up with innovative solution ideas with a clear business value. This requires business competencies on the one hand and technical competencies in AI and data analytics on the other hand. In this article, we present the concept of AI innovation labs and demonstrate a comprehensive framework, from coming up with the right ideas to incrementally implementing and evaluating them regarding their business value and their feasibility based on a company's capabilities. The concept is the result of nine years of working on data-driven innovations with companies from various domains. Furthermore, we share some lessons learned from its practical applications. Even though a lot of technical publications can be found in the literature regarding the development of AI models and many consultancy companies provide corresponding services for building AI innovations, we found very few publications sharing details about what an end-to-end framework could look like.


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