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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Search Engine Similarity Analysis: A Combined Content and Rankings Approach

Nov 06, 2020
Konstantina Dritsa, Thodoris Sotiropoulos, Haris Skarpetis, Panos Louridas

How different are search engines? The search engine wars are a favorite topic of on-line analysts, as two of the biggest companies in the world, Google and Microsoft, battle for prevalence of the web search space. Differences in search engine popularity can be explained by their effectiveness or other factors, such as familiarity with the most popular first engine, peer imitation, or force of habit. In this work we present a thorough analysis of the affinity of the two major search engines, Google and Bing, along with DuckDuckGo, which goes to great lengths to emphasize its privacy-friendly credentials. To do so, we collected search results using a comprehensive set of 300 unique queries for two time periods in 2016 and 2019, and developed a new similarity metric that leverages both the content and the ranking of search responses. We evaluated the characteristics of the metric against other metrics and approaches that have been proposed in the literature, and used it to (1) investigate the similarities of search engine results, (2) the evolution of their affinity over time, (3) what aspects of the results influence similarity, and (4) how the metric differs over different kinds of search services. We found that Google stands apart, but Bing and DuckDuckGo are largely indistinguishable from each other.

* Shorter version of this paper was accepted in the 21st International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering (WISE 2020). The final authenticated version is available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-62008-0_2 

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Optimistic search strategy: Change point detection for large-scale data via adaptive logarithmic queries

Oct 20, 2020
Solt Kovács, Housen Li, Lorenz Haubner, Axel Munk, Peter Bühlmann

As a classical and ever reviving topic, change point detection is often formulated as a search for the maximum of a gain function describing improved fits when segmenting the data. Searching through all candidate split points on the grid for finding the best one requires $O(T)$ evaluations of the gain function for an interval with $T$ observations. If each evaluation is computationally demanding (e.g. in high-dimensional models), this can become infeasible. Instead, we propose optimistic search strategies with $O(\log T)$ evaluations exploiting specific structure of the gain function. Towards solid understanding of our strategies, we investigate in detail the classical univariate Gaussian change in mean setup. For some of our proposals we prove asymptotic minimax optimality for single and multiple change point scenarios. Our search strategies generalize far beyond the theoretically analyzed univariate setup. We illustrate, as an example, massive computational speedup in change point detection for high-dimensional Gaussian graphical models. More generally, we demonstrate empirically that our optimistic search methods lead to competitive estimation performance while heavily reducing run-time.


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Identifying efficient controls of complex interaction networks using genetic algorithms

Jul 09, 2020
Victor-Bogdan Popescu, Krishna Kanhaiya, Iulian Năstac, Eugen Czeizler, Ion Petre

Control theory has seen recently impactful applications in network science, especially in connections with applications in network medicine. A key topic of research is that of finding minimal external interventions that offer control over the dynamics of a given network, a problem known as network controllability. We propose in this article a new solution for this problem based on genetic algorithms. We tailor our solution for applications in computational drug repurposing, seeking to maximise its use of FDA-approved drug targets in a given disease-specific protein-protein interaction network. We show how our algorithm identifies a number of potentially efficient drugs for breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer. We demonstrate our algorithm on several benchmark networks from cancer medicine, social networks, electronic circuits, and several random networks with their edges distributed according to the Erd\H{o}s-R\'{e}nyi, the small-world, and the scale-free properties. Overall, we show that our new algorithm is more efficient in identifying relevant drug targets in a disease network, advancing the computational solutions needed for new therapeutic and drug repurposing approaches.

* The submission contains 34 pages, 9 figures and 6 tables 

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TRIE: End-to-End Text Reading and Information Extraction for Document Understanding

May 27, 2020
Peng Zhang, Yunlu Xu, Zhanzhan Cheng, Shiliang Pu, Jing Lu, Liang Qiao, Yi Niu, Fei Wu

Since real-world ubiquitous documents (e.g., invoices, tickets, resumes and leaflets) contain rich information, automatic document image understanding has become a hot topic. Most existing works decouple the problem into two separate tasks, (1) text reading for detecting and recognizing texts in the images and (2) information extraction for analyzing and extracting key elements from previously extracted plain text. However, they mainly focus on improving information extraction task, while neglecting the fact that text reading and information extraction are mutually correlated. In this paper, we propose a unified end-to-end text reading and information extraction network, where the two tasks can reinforce each other. Specifically, the multimodal visual and textual features of text reading are fused for information extraction and in turn, the semantics in information extraction contribute to the optimization of text reading. On three real-world datasets with diverse document images (from fixed layout to variable layout, from structured text to semi-structured text), our proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in both efficiency and accuracy.


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End-to-end facial and physiological model for Affective Computing and applications

Jan 20, 2020
Joaquim Comas, Decky Aspandi, Xavier Binefa

In recent years, Affective Computing and its applications have become a fast-growing research topic. Furthermore, the rise of Deep Learning has introduced significant improvements in the emotion recognition system compared to classical methods. In this work, we propose a multi-modal emotion recognition model based on deep learning techniques using the combination of peripheral physiological signals and facial expressions. Moreover, we present an improvement to proposed models by introducing latent features extracted from our internal Bio Auto-Encoder (BAE). Both models are trained and evaluated on AMIGOS datasets reporting valence, arousal, and emotion state classification. Finally, to demonstrate a possible medical application in affective computing using deep learning techniques, we applied the proposed method to the assessment of anxiety therapy. To this purpose, a reduced multi-modal database has been collected by recording facial expressions and peripheral signals such as Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of each patient. Valence and arousal estimation was extracted using the proposed model from the beginning until the end of the therapy, with successful evaluation to the different emotional changes in the temporal domain.


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End-to-end facial and physiological model for \\Affective Computing and applications

Dec 10, 2019
Joaquim Comas, Decky Aspandi, Xavier Binefa

In recent years, Affective Computing and its applications have become a fast-growing research topic. Furthermore, the rise of Deep Learning has introduced significant improvements in the emotion recognition system compared to classical methods. In this work, we propose a multi-modal emotion recognition model based on deep learning techniques using the combination of peripheral physiological signals and facial expressions. Moreover, we present an improvement to proposed models by introducing latent features extracted from our internal Bio Auto-Encoder (BAE). Both models are trained and evaluated on AMIGOS datasets reporting valence, arousal, and emotion state classification. Finally, to demonstrate a possible medical application in affective computing using deep learning techniques, we applied the proposed method to the assessment of anxiety therapy. To this purpose, a reduced multi-modal database has been collected by recording facial expressions and peripheral signals such as Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of each patient. Valence and arousal estimation was extracted using the proposed model from the beginning until the end of the therapy, with successful evaluation to the different emotional changes in the temporal domain.


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GRAPHENE: A Precise Biomedical Literature Retrieval Engine with Graph Augmented Deep Learning and External Knowledge Empowerment

Nov 20, 2019
Sendong Zhao, Chang Su, Andrea Sboner, Fei Wang

Effective biomedical literature retrieval (BLR) plays a central role in precision medicine informatics. In this paper, we propose GRAPHENE, which is a deep learning based framework for precise BLR. GRAPHENE consists of three main different modules 1) graph-augmented document representation learning; 2) query expansion and representation learning and 3) learning to rank biomedical articles. The graph-augmented document representation learning module constructs a document-concept graph containing biomedical concept nodes and document nodes so that global biomedical related concept from external knowledge source can be captured, which is further connected to a BiLSTM so both local and global topics can be explored. Query expansion and representation learning module expands the query with abbreviations and different names, and then builds a CNN-based model to convolve the expanded query and obtain a vector representation for each query. Learning to rank minimizes a ranking loss between biomedical articles with the query to learn the retrieval function. Experimental results on applying our system to TREC Precision Medicine track data are provided to demonstrate its effectiveness.

* CIKM 2019 

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Low-Weight and Learnable Image Denoising

Nov 17, 2019
Gregory Vaksman, Michael Elad, Peyman Milanfar

Image denoising is a well studied problem with an extensive activity that has spread over several decades. Despite the many available denoising algorithms, the quest for simple, powerful and fast denoisers is still an active and vibrant topic of research. Leading classical denoising methods are typically designed to exploit the inner structure in images by modeling local overlapping patches. In contrast, recent newcomers to this arena are supervised neural-network-based methods that bypass this modeling altogether, targeting the inference goal directly and globally, while tending to be very deep and parameter heavy. This work proposes a novel low-weight learnable architecture that embeds in it several of the main concepts from the classical methods, while being trained for best denoising performance. More specifically, our proposed network relies on patch processing, leveraging non-local self-similarity, representation sparsity and a multiscale treatment. The proposed architecture achieves near state-of-the-art denoising results, while using a small fraction of the typical number of parameters. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of the proposed network to adapt itself to an incoming image by leveraging similar clean ones.


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