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"Topic": models, code, and papers

YNU-HPCC at SemEval-2020 Task 8: Using a Parallel-Channel Model for Memotion Analysis

Jul 28, 2020
Li Yuan, Jin Wang, Xuejie Zhang

In recent years, the growing ubiquity of Internet memes on social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, has become a topic of immense interest. However, the classification and recognition of memes is much more complicated than that of social text since it involves visual cues and language understanding. To address this issue, this paper proposed a parallel-channel model to process the textual and visual information in memes and then analyze the sentiment polarity of memes. In the shared task of identifying and categorizing memes, we preprocess the dataset according to the language behaviors on social media. Then, we adapt and fine-tune the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), and two types of convolutional neural network models (CNNs) were used to extract the features from the pictures. We applied an ensemble model that combined the BiLSTM, BIGRU, and Attention models to perform cross domain suggestion mining. The officially released results show that our system performs better than the baseline algorithm. Our team won nineteenth place in subtask A (Sentiment Classification). The code of this paper is availabled at : https://github.com/YuanLi95/Semveal2020-Task8-emotion-analysis.

* 5pages 

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TailorGAN: Making User-Defined Fashion Designs

Jan 20, 2020
Lele Chen, Justin Tian, Guo Li, Cheng-Haw Wu, Erh-Kan King, Kuan-Ting Chen, Shao-Hang Hsieh, Chenliang Xu

Attribute editing has become an important and emerging topic of computer vision. In this paper, we consider a task: given a reference garment image A and another image B with target attribute (collar/sleeve), generate a photo-realistic image which combines the texture from reference A and the new attribute from reference B. The highly convoluted attributes and the lack of paired data are the main challenges to the task. To overcome those limitations, we propose a novel self-supervised model to synthesize garment images with disentangled attributes (e.g., collar and sleeves) without paired data. Our method consists of a reconstruction learning step and an adversarial learning step. The model learns texture and location information through reconstruction learning. And, the model's capability is generalized to achieve single-attribute manipulation by adversarial learning. Meanwhile, we compose a new dataset, named GarmentSet, with annotation of landmarks of collars and sleeves on clean garment images. Extensive experiments on this dataset and real-world samples demonstrate that our method can synthesize much better results than the state-of-the-art methods in both quantitative and qualitative comparisons.

* 2020 Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision 
* fashion 

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CAMUS: A Framework to Build Formal Specifications for Deep Perception Systems Using Simulators

Nov 25, 2019
Julien Girard-Satabin, Guillaume Charpiat, Zakaria Chihani, Marc Schoenauer

The topic of provable deep neural network robustness has raised considerable interest in recent years. Most research has focused on adversarial robustness, which studies the robustness of perceptive models in the neighbourhood of particular samples. However, other works have proved global properties of smaller neural networks. Yet, formally verifying perception remains uncharted. This is due notably to the lack of relevant properties to verify, as the distribution of possible inputs cannot be formally specified. We propose to take advantage of the simulators often used either to train machine learning models or to check them with statistical tests, a growing trend in industry. Our formulation allows us to formally express and verify safety properties on perception units, covering all cases that could ever be generated by the simulator, to the difference of statistical tests which cover only seen examples. Along with this theoretical formulation , we provide a tool to translate deep learning models into standard logical formulae. As a proof of concept, we train a toy example mimicking an autonomous car perceptive unit, and we formally verify that it will never fail to capture the relevant information in the provided inputs.


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Target-Oriented Deformation of Visual-Semantic Embedding Space

Oct 15, 2019
Takashi Matsubara

Multimodal embedding is a crucial research topic for cross-modal understanding, data mining, and translation. Many studies have attempted to extract representations from given entities and align them in a shared embedding space. However, because entities in different modalities exhibit different abstraction levels and modality-specific information, it is insufficient to embed related entities close to each other. In this study, we propose the Target-Oriented Deformation Network (TOD-Net), a novel module that continuously deforms the embedding space into a new space under a given condition, thereby adjusting similarities between entities. Unlike methods based on cross-modal attention, TOD-Net is a post-process applied to the embedding space learned by existing embedding systems and improves their performances of retrieval. In particular, when combined with cutting-edge models, TOD-Net gains the state-of-the-art cross-modal retrieval model associated with the MSCOCO dataset. Qualitative analysis reveals that TOD-Net successfully emphasizes entity-specific concepts and retrieves diverse targets via handling higher levels of diversity than existing models.

* 8 pages 

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Diffprivlib: The IBM Differential Privacy Library

Jul 04, 2019
Naoise Holohan, Stefano Braghin, Pól Mac Aonghusa, Killian Levacher

Since its conception in 2006, differential privacy has emerged as the de-facto standard in data privacy, owing to its robust mathematical guarantees, generalised applicability and rich body of literature. Over the years, researchers have studied differential privacy and its applicability to an ever-widening field of topics. Mechanisms have been created to optimise the process of achieving differential privacy, for various data types and scenarios. Until this work however, all previous work on differential privacy has been conducted on a ad-hoc basis, without a single, unifying codebase to implement results. In this work, we present the IBM Differential Privacy Library, a general purpose, open source library for investigating, experimenting and developing differential privacy applications in the Python programming language. The library includes a host of mechanisms, the building blocks of differential privacy, alongside a number of applications to machine learning and other data analytics tasks. Simplicity and accessibility has been prioritised in developing the library, making it suitable to a wide audience of users, from those using the library for their first investigations in data privacy, to the privacy experts looking to contribute their own models and mechanisms for others to use.


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Symphony of high-dimensional brain

Jun 27, 2019
Alexander N. Gorban, Valeri A. Makarov, Ivan Y. Tyukin

This paper is the final part of the scientific discussion organised by the Journal "Physics of Life Rviews" about the simplicity revolution in neuroscience and AI. This discussion was initiated by the review paper "The unreasonable effectiveness of small neural ensembles in high-dimensional brain". Phys Life Rev 2019, doi 10.1016/j.plrev.2018.09.005, arXiv:1809.07656. The topics of the discussion varied from the necessity to take into account the difference between the theoretical random distributions and "extremely non-random" real distributions and revise the common machine learning theory, to different forms of the curse of dimensionality and high-dimensional pitfalls in neuroscience. V. K{\r{u}}rkov{\'a}, A. Tozzi and J.F. Peters, R. Quian Quiroga, P. Varona, R. Barrio, G. Kreiman, L. Fortuna, C. van Leeuwen, R. Quian Quiroga, and V. Kreinovich, A.N. Gorban, V.A. Makarov, and I.Y. Tyukin participated in the discussion. In this paper we analyse the symphony of opinions and the possible outcomes of the simplicity revolution for machine learning and neuroscience.

* Physics of Life Reviews, 2019 

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On Measuring Gender Bias in Translation of Gender-neutral Pronouns

May 28, 2019
Won Ik Cho, Ji Won Kim, Seok Min Kim, Nam Soo Kim

Ethics regarding social bias has recently thrown striking issues in natural language processing. Especially for gender-related topics, the need for a system that reduces the model bias has grown in areas such as image captioning, content recommendation, and automated employment. However, detection and evaluation of gender bias in the machine translation systems are not yet thoroughly investigated, for the task being cross-lingual and challenging to define. In this paper, we propose a scheme for making up a test set that evaluates the gender bias in a machine translation system, with Korean, a language with gender-neutral pronouns. Three word/phrase sets are primarily constructed, each incorporating positive/negative expressions or occupations; all the terms are gender-independent or at least not biased to one side severely. Then, additional sentence lists are constructed concerning formality of the pronouns and politeness of the sentences. With the generated sentence set of size 4,236 in total, we evaluate gender bias in conventional machine translation systems utilizing the proposed measure, which is termed here as translation gender bias index (TGBI). The corpus and the code for evaluation is available on-line.

* Accepted to 1st ACL Workshop on Gender Bias for Natural Language Processing (GeBNLP 2019) 

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Classification of signaling proteins based on molecular star graph descriptors using Machine Learning models

Apr 10, 2019
Carlos Fernandez-Lozano, Ruben F. Cuinas, Jose A. Seoane, Enrique Fernandez-Blanco, Julian Dorado, Cristian R. Munteanu

Signaling proteins are an important topic in drug development due to the increased importance of finding fast, accurate and cheap methods to evaluate new molecular targets involved in specific diseases. The complexity of the protein structure hinders the direct association of the signaling activity with the molecular structure. Therefore, the proposed solution involves the use of protein star graphs for the peptide sequence information encoding into specific topological indices calculated with S2SNet tool. The Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship classification model obtained with Machine Learning techniques is able to predict new signaling peptides. The best classification model is the first signaling prediction model, which is based on eleven descriptors and it was obtained using the Support Vector Machines - Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) technique with the Laplacian kernel (RFE-LAP) and an AUROC of 0.961. Testing a set of 3114 proteins of unknown function from the PDB database assessed the prediction performance of the model. Important signaling pathways are presented for three UniprotIDs (34 PDBs) with a signaling prediction greater than 98.0%.

* Journal of theoretical biology 384 (2015): 50-58 
* 19 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables 

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A laboratory-created dataset with ground-truth for hyperspectral unmixing evaluation

Feb 22, 2019
Min Zhao, Jie Chen, Zhe He

Spectral unmixing is an important and challenging problem in hyperspectral data processing. This topic has been extensively studied and a variety of unmixing algorithms have been proposed in the literature. However, the lack of publicly available dataset with ground-truth makes it difficult to evaluate and compare the performance of unmixing algorithms in a quantitative and objective manner. Most of the existing works rely on the use of numerical synthetic data and an intuitive inspection of the results of real data. To alleviate this dilemma, in this study, we design several experimental scenes in our laboratory, including printed checkerboards, mixed quartz sands, and reflection with a vertical board. A dataset is then created by imaging these scenes with the hyperspectral camera in our laboratory, providing 36 mixtures with more than 130, 000 pixels with 256 wavelength bands ranging from 400nm to 1000nm. The experimental settings are strictly controlled so that pure material spectral signatures and material compositions are known. To the best of our knowledge, this dataset is the first publicly available dataset created in a systematic manner with ground-truth for spectral unmixing. Some typical linear and nonlinear unmixing algorithms are also tested with this dataset and lead to meaningful results.

* 13 pages, 13 figures, submitted for publication 

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