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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Core Challenges in Embodied Vision-Language Planning

Jun 26, 2021
Jonathan Francis, Nariaki Kitamura, Felix Labelle, Xiaopeng Lu, Ingrid Navarro, Jean Oh

Recent advances in the areas of multimodal machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) have led to the development of challenging tasks at the intersection of Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, and Embodied AI. Whereas many approaches and previous survey pursuits have characterised one or two of these dimensions, there has not been a holistic analysis at the center of all three. Moreover, even when combinations of these topics are considered, more focus is placed on describing, e.g., current architectural methods, as opposed to also illustrating high-level challenges and opportunities for the field. In this survey paper, we discuss Embodied Vision-Language Planning (EVLP) tasks, a family of prominent embodied navigation and manipulation problems that jointly use computer vision and natural language. We propose a taxonomy to unify these tasks and provide an in-depth analysis and comparison of the new and current algorithmic approaches, metrics, simulated environments, as well as the datasets used for EVLP tasks. Finally, we present the core challenges that we believe new EVLP works should seek to address, and we advocate for task construction that enables model generalizability and furthers real-world deployment.

* 35 pages 

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AIRIS: Artificial Intelligence Enhanced Signal Processing in Reconfigurable Intelligent Surface Communications

Jun 01, 2021
Shun Zhang, Muye Li, Mengnan Jian, Yajun Zhao, Feifei Gao

Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is an emerging meta-surface that can provide additional communications links through reflecting the signals, and has been recognized as a strong candidate of 6G mobile communications systems. Meanwhile, it has been recently admitted that implementing artificial intelligence (AI) into RIS communications will extensively benefit the reconfiguration capacity and enhance the robustness to complicated transmission environments. Besides the conventional model-driven approaches, AI can also deal with the existing signal processing problems in a data-driven manner via digging the inherent characteristic from the real data. Hence, AI is particularly suitable for the signal processing problems over RIS networks under unideal scenarios like modeling mismatching, insufficient resource, hardware impairment, as well as dynamical transmissions. As one of the earliest survey papers, we will introduce the merging of AI and RIS, called AIRIS, over various signal processing topics, including environmental sensing, channel acquisition, beamforming design, and resource scheduling, etc. We will also discuss the challenges of AIRIS and present some interesting future directions.

* 10 pages, 7 figures. Accepted by China Communications 

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Forecasting The JSE Top 40 Using Long Short-Term Memory Networks

Apr 20, 2021
Adam Balusik, Jared de Magalhaes, Rendani Mbuvha

As a result of the greater availability of big data, as well as the decreasing costs and increasing power of modern computing, the use of artificial neural networks for financial time series forecasting is once again a major topic of discussion and research in the financial world. Despite this academic focus, there are still contrasting opinions and bodies of literature on which artificial neural networks perform the best and whether or not they outperform the forecasting capabilities of conventional time series models. This paper uses a long-short term memory network to perform financial time series forecasting on the return data of the JSE Top 40 index. Furthermore, the forecasting performance of the long-short term memory network is compared to the forecasting performance of a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model. This paper evaluates the varying approaches presented in the existing literature and ultimately, compares the results to that existing literature. The paper concludes that the long short-term memory network outperforms the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model when forecasting intraday directional movements as well as when forecasting the index close price.

* 17 Pages, 5 Figures, 4 Tables 

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FRAKE: Fusional Real-time Automatic Keyword Extraction

Apr 10, 2021
Aidin Zehtab-Salmasi, Mohammad-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi, Mohamad-Ali Balafar

Keyword extraction is called identifying words or phrases that express the main concepts of texts in best. There is a huge amount of texts that are created every day and at all times through electronic infrastructure. So, it is practically impossible for humans to study and manage this volume of documents. However, the need for efficient and effective access to these documents is evident in various purposes. Weblogs, News, and technical notes are almost long texts, while the reader seeks to understand the concepts by topics or keywords to decide for reading the full text. To this aim, we use a combined approach that consists of two models of graph centrality features and textural features. In the following, graph centralities, such as degree, betweenness, eigenvector, and closeness centrality, have been used to optimally combine them to extract the best keyword among the candidate keywords extracted by the proposed method. Also, another approach has been introduced to distinguishing keywords among candidate phrases and considering them as a separate keyword. To evaluate the proposed method, seven datasets named, Semeval2010, SemEval2017, Inspec, fao30, Thesis100, pak2018 and WikiNews have been used, and results reported Precision, Recall, and F- measure.


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Discovery of Options via Meta-Learned Subgoals

Feb 12, 2021
Vivek Veeriah, Tom Zahavy, Matteo Hessel, Zhongwen Xu, Junhyuk Oh, Iurii Kemaev, Hado van Hasselt, David Silver, Satinder Singh

Temporal abstractions in the form of options have been shown to help reinforcement learning (RL) agents learn faster. However, despite prior work on this topic, the problem of discovering options through interaction with an environment remains a challenge. In this paper, we introduce a novel meta-gradient approach for discovering useful options in multi-task RL environments. Our approach is based on a manager-worker decomposition of the RL agent, in which a manager maximises rewards from the environment by learning a task-dependent policy over both a set of task-independent discovered-options and primitive actions. The option-reward and termination functions that define a subgoal for each option are parameterised as neural networks and trained via meta-gradients to maximise their usefulness. Empirical analysis on gridworld and DeepMind Lab tasks show that: (1) our approach can discover meaningful and diverse temporally-extended options in multi-task RL domains, (2) the discovered options are frequently used by the agent while learning to solve the training tasks, and (3) that the discovered options help a randomly initialised manager learn faster in completely new tasks.


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Adversarial Multi-scale Feature Learning for Person Re-identification

Dec 28, 2020
Xinglu Wang

Person Re-identification (Person ReID) is an important topic in intelligent surveillance and computer vision. It aims to accurately measure visual similarities between person images for determining whether two images correspond to the same person. The key to accurately measure visual similarities is learning discriminative features, which not only captures clues from different spatial scales, but also jointly inferences on multiple scales, with the ability to determine reliability and ID-relativity of each clue. To achieve these goals, we propose to improve Person ReID system performance from two perspective: \textbf{1).} Multi-scale feature learning (MSFL), which consists of Cross-scale information propagation (CSIP) and Multi-scale feature fusion (MSFF), to dynamically fuse features cross different scales.\textbf{2).} Multi-scale gradient regularizor (MSGR), to emphasize ID-related factors and ignore irrelevant factors in an adversarial manner. Combining MSFL and MSGR, our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on four commonly used person-ReID datasets with neglectable test-time computation overhead.


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Better Distractions: Transformer-based Distractor Generation and Multiple Choice Question Filtering

Oct 19, 2020
Jeroen Offerijns, Suzan Verberne, Tessa Verhoef

For the field of education, being able to generate semantically correct and educationally relevant multiple choice questions (MCQs) could have a large impact. While question generation itself is an active research topic, generating distractors (the incorrect multiple choice options) receives much less attention. A missed opportunity, since there is still a lot of room for improvement in this area. In this work, we train a GPT-2 language model to generate three distractors for a given question and text context, using the RACE dataset. Next, we train a BERT language model to answer MCQs, and use this model as a filter, to select only questions that can be answered and therefore presumably make sense. To evaluate our work, we start by using text generation metrics, which show that our model outperforms earlier work on distractor generation (DG) and achieves state-of-the-art performance. Also, by calculating the question answering ability, we show that larger base models lead to better performance. Moreover, we conducted a human evaluation study, which confirmed the quality of the generated questions, but showed no statistically significant effect of the QA filter.


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AAG: Self-Supervised Representation Learning by Auxiliary Augmentation with GNT-Xent Loss

Sep 17, 2020
Yanlun Tu, Jianxing Feng, Yang Yang

Self-supervised representation learning is an emerging research topic for its powerful capacity in learning with unlabeled data. As a mainstream self-supervised learning method, augmentation-based contrastive learning has achieved great success in various computer vision tasks that lack manual annotations. Despite current progress, the existing methods are often limited by extra cost on memory or storage, and their performance still has large room for improvement. Here we present a self-supervised representation learning method, namely AAG, which is featured by an auxiliary augmentation strategy and GNT-Xent loss. The auxiliary augmentation is able to promote the performance of contrastive learning by increasing the diversity of images. The proposed GNT-Xent loss enables a steady and fast training process and yields competitive accuracy. Experiment results demonstrate the superiority of AAG to previous state-of-the-art methods on CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and SVHN. Especially, AAG achieves 94.5% top-1 accuracy on CIFAR10 with batch size 64, which is 0.5% higher than the best result of SimCLR with batch size 1024.

* 8 pages,6 figures 

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YNU-HPCC at SemEval-2020 Task 8: Using a Parallel-Channel Model for Memotion Analysis

Jul 28, 2020
Li Yuan, Jin Wang, Xuejie Zhang

In recent years, the growing ubiquity of Internet memes on social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, has become a topic of immense interest. However, the classification and recognition of memes is much more complicated than that of social text since it involves visual cues and language understanding. To address this issue, this paper proposed a parallel-channel model to process the textual and visual information in memes and then analyze the sentiment polarity of memes. In the shared task of identifying and categorizing memes, we preprocess the dataset according to the language behaviors on social media. Then, we adapt and fine-tune the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT), and two types of convolutional neural network models (CNNs) were used to extract the features from the pictures. We applied an ensemble model that combined the BiLSTM, BIGRU, and Attention models to perform cross domain suggestion mining. The officially released results show that our system performs better than the baseline algorithm. Our team won nineteenth place in subtask A (Sentiment Classification). The code of this paper is availabled at : https://github.com/YuanLi95/Semveal2020-Task8-emotion-analysis.

* 5pages 

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TailorGAN: Making User-Defined Fashion Designs

Jan 20, 2020
Lele Chen, Justin Tian, Guo Li, Cheng-Haw Wu, Erh-Kan King, Kuan-Ting Chen, Shao-Hang Hsieh, Chenliang Xu

Attribute editing has become an important and emerging topic of computer vision. In this paper, we consider a task: given a reference garment image A and another image B with target attribute (collar/sleeve), generate a photo-realistic image which combines the texture from reference A and the new attribute from reference B. The highly convoluted attributes and the lack of paired data are the main challenges to the task. To overcome those limitations, we propose a novel self-supervised model to synthesize garment images with disentangled attributes (e.g., collar and sleeves) without paired data. Our method consists of a reconstruction learning step and an adversarial learning step. The model learns texture and location information through reconstruction learning. And, the model's capability is generalized to achieve single-attribute manipulation by adversarial learning. Meanwhile, we compose a new dataset, named GarmentSet, with annotation of landmarks of collars and sleeves on clean garment images. Extensive experiments on this dataset and real-world samples demonstrate that our method can synthesize much better results than the state-of-the-art methods in both quantitative and qualitative comparisons.

* 2020 Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision 
* fashion 

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