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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Designing spontaneous behavioral switching via chaotic itinerancy

Feb 13, 2020
Katsuma Inoue, Kohei Nakajima, Yasuo Kuniyoshi

Chaotic itinerancy is a frequently observed phenomenon in high-dimensional and nonlinear dynamical systems, and it is characterized by the random transitions among multiple quasi-attractors. Several studies have revealed that chaotic itinerancy has been observed in brain activity, and it is considered to play a critical role in the spontaneous, stable behavior generation of animals. Thus, chaotic itinerancy is a topic of great interest, particularly for neurorobotics researchers who wish to understand and implement autonomous behavioral controls for agents. However, it is generally difficult to gain control over high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems. Hence, the implementation of chaotic itinerancy has mainly been accomplished heuristically. In this study, we propose a novel way of implementing chaotic itinerancy reproducibly and at will in a generic high-dimensional chaotic system. In particular, we demonstrate that our method enables us to easily design both the trajectories of quasi-attractors and the transition rules among them simply by adjusting the limited number of system parameters and by utilizing the intrinsic high-dimensional chaos. Finally, we quantitatively discuss the validity and scope of application through the results of several numerical experiments.

* 15 pages, 6 figures and 1 supplementary figure. Our supplementary videos are available in 

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Towards Quantifying the Distance between Opinions

Jan 27, 2020
Saket Gurukar, Deepak Ajwani, Sourav Dutta, Juho Lauri, Srinivasan Parthasarathy, Alessandra Sala

Increasingly, critical decisions in public policy, governance, and business strategy rely on a deeper understanding of the needs and opinions of constituent members (e.g. citizens, shareholders). While it has become easier to collect a large number of opinions on a topic, there is a necessity for automated tools to help navigate the space of opinions. In such contexts understanding and quantifying the similarity between opinions is key. We find that measures based solely on text similarity or on overall sentiment often fail to effectively capture the distance between opinions. Thus, we propose a new distance measure for capturing the similarity between opinions that leverages the nuanced observation -- similar opinions express similar sentiment polarity on specific relevant entities-of-interest. Specifically, in an unsupervised setting, our distance measure achieves significantly better Adjusted Rand Index scores (up to 56x) and Silhouette coefficients (up to 21x) compared to existing approaches. Similarly, in a supervised setting, our opinion distance measure achieves considerably better accuracy (up to 20% increase) compared to extant approaches that rely on text similarity, stance similarity, and sentiment similarity

* Accepted in ICWSM '20 

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Attention Deep Model with Multi-Scale Deep Supervision for Person Re-Identification

Nov 27, 2019
Di Wu, Chao Wang, Yong Wu, De-Shuang Huang

In recent years, person re-identification (PReID) has become a hot topic in computer vision duo to it is an important part in intelligent surveillance. Many state-of-the-art PReID methods are attention-based or multi-scale feature learning deep models. However, introducing attention mechanism may lead to some important feature information losing issue. Besides, most of the multi-scale models embedding the multi-scale feature learning block into the feature extraction deep network, which reduces the efficiency of inference network. To address these issue, in this study, we introduce an attention deep architecture with multi-scale deep supervision for PReID. Technically, we contribute a reverse attention block to complement the attention block, and a novel multi-scale layer with deep supervision operator for training the backbone network. The proposed block and operator are only used for training, and discard in test phase. Experiments have been performed on Market-1501, DukeMTMC-reID and CUHK03 datasets. All the experiment results show that the proposed model significantly outperforms the other competitive state-of-the-art methods.

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Risks of Using Non-verified Open Data: A case study on using Machine Learning techniques for predicting Pregnancy Outcomes in India

Oct 21, 2019
Anusua Trivedi, Sumit Mukherjee, Edmund Tse, Anne Ewing, Juan Lavista Ferres

Artificial intelligence (AI) has evolved considerably in the last few years. While applications of AI is now becoming more common in fields like retail and marketing, application of AI in solving problems related to developing countries is still an emerging topic. Specially, AI applications in resource-poor settings remains relatively nascent. There is a huge scope of AI being used in such settings. For example, researchers have started exploring AI applications to reduce poverty and deliver a broad range of critical public services. However, despite many promising use cases, there are many dataset related challenges that one has to overcome in such projects. These challenges often take the form of missing data, incorrectly collected data and improperly labeled variables, among other factors. As a result, we can often end up using data that is not representative of the problem we are trying to solve. In this case study, we explore the challenges of using such an open dataset from India, to predict an important health outcome. We highlight how the use of AI without proper understanding of reporting metrics can lead to erroneous conclusions.

* Presented at NeurIPS 2019 Workshop on Machine Learning for the Developing World 

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DREAMT -- Embodied Motivational Conversational Storytelling

Jul 19, 2019
David M W Powers

Storytelling is fundamental to language, including culture, conversation and communication in their broadest senses. It thus emerges as an essential component of intelligent systems, including systems where natural language is not a primary focus or where we do not usually think of a story being involved. In this paper we explore the emergence of storytelling as a requirement in embodied conversational agents, including its role in educational and health interventions, as well as in a general-purpose computer interface for people with disabilities or other constraints that prevent the use of traditional keyboard and speech interfaces. We further present a characterization of storytelling as an inventive fleshing out of detail according to a particular personal perspective, and propose the DREAMT model to focus attention on the different layers that need to be present in a character-driven storytelling system. Most if not all aspects of the DREAMT model have arisen from or been explored in some aspect of our implemented research systems, but currently only at a primitive and relatively unintegrated level. However, this experience leads us to formalize and elaborate the DREAMT model mnemonically as follows: - Description/Dialogue/Definition/Denotation - Realization/Representation/Role - Explanation/Education/Entertainment - Actualization/Activation - Motivation/Modelling - Topicalization/Transformation

* 12 pages; to be presented as lightning talk plus poster at StoryNLP on 1 August 2019 at ACL in Florence - poster pdf and powerpoint available 

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Modeling Food Popularity Dependencies using Social Media data

Jun 26, 2019
Devashish Khulbe, Manu Pathak

The rise in popularity of major social media platforms have enabled people to share photos and textual information about their daily life. One of the popular topics about which information is shared is food. Since a lot of media about food are attributed to particular locations and restaurants, information like popularity of spatio-temporal popularity of various cuisines can be analysed. Tracking the popularity of food types and retail locations across space and time can also be useful for business owners and restaurant investors. In this work, we present an approach using off-the shelf machine learning techniques to identify trends and popularity of cuisine types in an area using geo-tagged data from social media, Google images and Yelp. After adjusting for time, we use the Kernel Density Estimation to get hot spots across the location and model the dependencies among food cuisines popularity using Bayesian Networks. We consider the Manhattan borough of New York City as the location for our analyses but the approach can be used for any area with social media data and information about retail businesses.

* 5 pages 

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Best-First Width Search for Multi Agent Privacy-preserving Planning

Jun 10, 2019
Alfonso E. Gerevini, Nir Lipovetzky, Francesco Percassi, Alessandro Saetti, Ivan Serina

In multi-agent planning, preserving the agents' privacy has become an increasingly popular research topic. For preserving the agents' privacy, agents jointly compute a plan that achieves mutual goals by keeping certain information private to the individual agents. Unfortunately, this can severely restrict the accuracy of the heuristic functions used while searching for solutions. It has been recently shown that, for centralized planning, the performance of goal oriented search can be improved by combining goal oriented search and width-based search. The combination of these techniques has been called best-first width search. In this paper, we investigate the usage of best-first width search in the context of (decentralised) multi-agent privacy-preserving planning, addressing the challenges related to the agents' privacy and performance. In particular, we show that best-first width search is a very effective approach over several benchmark domains, even when the search is driven by heuristics that roughly estimate the distance from goal states, computed without using the private information of other agents. An experimental study analyses the effectiveness of our techniques and compares them with the state-of-the-art.

* Accepted in ICAPS-19 

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Secure Distributed On-Device Learning Networks With Byzantine Adversaries

Jun 03, 2019
Yanjie Dong, Julian Cheng, Md. Jahangir Hossain, Victor C. M. Leung

The privacy concern exists when the central server has the copies of datasets. Hence, there is a paradigm shift for the learning networks to change from centralized in-cloud learning to distributed \mbox{on-device} learning. Benefit from the parallel computing, the on-device learning networks have a lower bandwidth requirement than the in-cloud learning networks. Moreover, the on-device learning networks also have several desirable characteristics such as privacy preserving and flexibility. However, the \mbox{on-device} learning networks are vulnerable to the malfunctioning terminals across the networks. The worst-case malfunctioning terminals are the Byzantine adversaries, that can perform arbitrary harmful operations to compromise the learned model based on the full knowledge of the networks. Hence, the design of secure learning algorithms becomes an emerging topic in the on-device learning networks with Byzantine adversaries. In this article, we present a comprehensive overview of the prevalent secure learning algorithms for the two promising on-device learning networks: Federated-Learning networks and decentralized-learning networks. We also review several future research directions in the \mbox{Federated-Learning} and decentralized-learning networks.

* This work was in part accepted by IEEE Network 

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