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Explaining how your AI system is fair

May 03, 2021
Boris Ruf, Marcin Detyniecki

To implement fair machine learning in a sustainable way, choosing the right fairness objective is key. Since fairness is a concept of justice which comes in various, sometimes conflicting definitions, this is not a trivial task though. The most appropriate fairness definition for an artificial intelligence (AI) system is a matter of ethical standards and legal requirements, and the right choice depends on the particular use case and its context. In this position paper, we propose to use a decision tree as means to explain and justify the implemented kind of fairness to the end users. Such a structure would first of all support AI practitioners in mapping ethical principles to fairness definitions for a concrete application and therefore make the selection a straightforward and transparent process. However, this approach would also help document the reasoning behind the decision making. Due to the general complexity of the topic of fairness in AI, we argue that specifying "fairness" for a given use case is the best way forward to maintain confidence in AI systems. In this case, this could be achieved by sharing the reasons and principles expressed during the decision making process with the broader audience.

* Accepted at the ACM CHI 2021 Workshop on Operationalizing Human-Centered Perspectives in Explainable AI 

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Dynamic Network Embedding Survey

Mar 29, 2021
Guotong Xue, Ming Zhong, Jianxin Li, Jia Chen, Chengshuai Zhai, Ruochen Kong

Since many real world networks are evolving over time, such as social networks and user-item networks, there are increasing research efforts on dynamic network embedding in recent years. They learn node representations from a sequence of evolving graphs but not only the latest network, for preserving both structural and temporal information from the dynamic networks. Due to the lack of comprehensive investigation of them, we give a survey of dynamic network embedding in this paper. Our survey inspects the data model, representation learning technique, evaluation and application of current related works and derives common patterns from them. Specifically, we present two basic data models, namely, discrete model and continuous model for dynamic networks. Correspondingly, we summarize two major categories of dynamic network embedding techniques, namely, structural-first and temporal-first that are adopted by most related works. Then we build a taxonomy that refines the category hierarchy by typical learning models. The popular experimental data sets and applications are also summarized. Lastly, we have a discussion of several distinct research topics in dynamic network embedding.

* Neurocomputing accepted 

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Towards the Right Kind of Fairness in AI

Mar 16, 2021
Boris Ruf, Marcin Detyniecki

Fairness is a concept of justice. Various definitions exist, some of them conflicting with each other. In the absence of an uniformly accepted notion of fairness, choosing the right kind for a specific situation has always been a central issue in human history. When it comes to implementing sustainable fairness in artificial intelligence systems, this old question plays a key role once again: How to identify the most appropriate fairness metric for a particular application? The answer is often a matter of context, and the best choice depends on ethical standards and legal requirements. Since ethics guidelines on this topic are kept rather general for now, we aim to provide more hands-on guidance with this document. Therefore, we first structure the complex landscape of existing fairness metrics and explain the different options by example. Furthermore, we propose the "Fairness Compass", a tool which formalises the selection process and makes identifying the most appropriate fairness definition for a given system a simple, straightforward procedure. Because this process also allows to document the reasoning behind the respective decisions, we argue that this approach can help to build trust from the user through explaining and justifying the implemented fairness.


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Dynamic Neural Networks: A Survey

Feb 10, 2021
Yizeng Han, Gao Huang, Shiji Song, Le Yang, Honghui Wang, Yulin Wang

Dynamic neural network is an emerging research topic in deep learning. Compared to static models which have fixed computational graphs and parameters at the inference stage, dynamic networks can adapt their structures or parameters to different inputs, leading to notable advantages in terms of accuracy, computational efficiency, adaptiveness, etc. In this survey, we comprehensively review this rapidly developing area by dividing dynamic networks into three main categories: 1) instance-wise dynamic models that process each instance with data-dependent architectures or parameters; 2) spatial-wise dynamic networks that conduct adaptive computation with respect to different spatial locations of image data and 3) temporal-wise dynamic models that perform adaptive inference along the temporal dimension for sequential data such as videos and texts. The important research problems of dynamic networks, e.g., architecture design, decision making scheme, optimization technique and applications, are reviewed systematically. Finally, we discuss the open problems in this field together with interesting future research directions.


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A linearized framework and a new benchmark for model selection for fine-tuning

Jan 29, 2021
Aditya Deshpande, Alessandro Achille, Avinash Ravichandran, Hao Li, Luca Zancato, Charless Fowlkes, Rahul Bhotika, Stefano Soatto, Pietro Perona

Fine-tuning from a collection of models pre-trained on different domains (a "model zoo") is emerging as a technique to improve test accuracy in the low-data regime. However, model selection, i.e. how to pre-select the right model to fine-tune from a model zoo without performing any training, remains an open topic. We use a linearized framework to approximate fine-tuning, and introduce two new baselines for model selection -- Label-Gradient and Label-Feature Correlation. Since all model selection algorithms in the literature have been tested on different use-cases and never compared directly, we introduce a new comprehensive benchmark for model selection comprising of: i) A model zoo of single and multi-domain models, and ii) Many target tasks. Our benchmark highlights accuracy gain with model zoo compared to fine-tuning Imagenet models. We show our model selection baseline can select optimal models to fine-tune in few selections and has the highest ranking correlation to fine-tuning accuracy compared to existing algorithms.

* 14 pages 

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A Python Library for Exploratory Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery on Twitter Data

Sep 03, 2020
Mario Graff, Daniela Moctezuma, Sabino Miranda-Jiménez, Eric S. Tellez

Twitter is perhaps the social media more amenable for research. It requires only a few steps to obtain information, and there are plenty of libraries that can help in this regard. Nonetheless, knowing whether a particular event is expressed on Twitter is a challenging task that requires a considerable collection of tweets. This proposal aims to facilitate, a researcher interested in Twitter data, the process of mining events on Twitter. The events could be related to natural disasters, health issues, people's mobility, among other studies that can be pursued with the library proposed. Different applications are presented in this contribution to illustrate the library's capabilities, starting from an exploratory analysis of the topics discovered in tweets, following it by studying the similarity among dialects of the Spanish language, and complementing it with a mobility report on different countries. In summary, the Python library presented retrieves a plethora of information processed from Twitter (since December 2015) in terms of words, bigrams of words, and their frequencies by day for Arabic, English, Spanish, and Russian languages. Finally, the mobility information considered is related to the number of travels among locations for more than 245 countries or territories.


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A survey on applications of augmented, mixed and virtual reality for nature and environment

Aug 28, 2020
Jason Rambach, Gergana Lilligreen, Alexander Schäfer, Ramya Bankanal, Alexander Wiebel, Didier Stricker

Augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) are technologies of great potential due to the engaging and enriching experiences they are capable of providing. Their use is rapidly increasing in diverse fields such as medicine, manufacturing or entertainment. However, the possibilities that AR, VR and MR offer in the area of environmental applications are not yet widely explored. In this paper we present the outcome of a survey meant to discover and classify existing AR/VR/MR applications that can benefit the environment or increase awareness on environmental issues. We performed an exhaustive search over several online publication access platforms and past proceedings of major conferences in the fields of AR/VR/MR. Identified relevant papers were filtered based on novelty, technical soundness, impact and topic relevance, and classified into different categories. Referring to the selected papers, we discuss how the applications of each category are contributing to environmental protection, preservation and sensitization purposes. We further analyse these approaches as well as possible future directions in the scope of existing and upcoming AR/VR/MR enabling technologies.


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A survey on applications of augmented, mixed andvirtual reality for nature and environment

Aug 27, 2020
Jason Rambach, Gergana Lilligreen, Alexander Schäfer, Ramya Bankanal, Alexander Wiebel, Didier Stricker

Augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR) are technologies of great potential due to the engaging and enriching experiences they are capable of providing. Their use is rapidly increasing in diverse fields such as medicine, manufacturing or entertainment. However, the possibilities that AR, VR and MR offer in the area of environmental applications are not yet widely explored. In this paper we present the outcome of a survey meant to discover and classify existing AR/VR/MR applications that can benefit the environment or increase awareness on environmental issues. We performed an exhaustive search over several online publication access platforms and past proceedings of major conferences in the fields of AR/VR/MR. Identified relevant papers were filtered based on novelty, technical soundness, impact and topic relevance, and classified into different categories. Referring to the selected papers, we discuss how the applications of each category are contributing to environmental protection, preservation and sensitization purposes. We further analyse these approaches as well as possible future directions in the scope of existing and upcoming AR/VR/MR enabling technologies.


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Visual Question Answering on Image Sets

Aug 27, 2020
Ankan Bansal, Yuting Zhang, Rama Chellappa

We introduce the task of Image-Set Visual Question Answering (ISVQA), which generalizes the commonly studied single-image VQA problem to multi-image settings. Taking a natural language question and a set of images as input, it aims to answer the question based on the content of the images. The questions can be about objects and relationships in one or more images or about the entire scene depicted by the image set. To enable research in this new topic, we introduce two ISVQA datasets - indoor and outdoor scenes. They simulate the real-world scenarios of indoor image collections and multiple car-mounted cameras, respectively. The indoor-scene dataset contains 91,479 human annotated questions for 48,138 image sets, and the outdoor-scene dataset has 49,617 questions for 12,746 image sets. We analyze the properties of the two datasets, including question-and-answer distributions, types of questions, biases in dataset, and question-image dependencies. We also build new baseline models to investigate new research challenges in ISVQA.

* Conference paper at ECCV 2020 

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A Survey on Generative Adversarial Networks: Variants, Applications, and Training

Jun 09, 2020
Abdul Jabbar, Xi Li, Bourahla Omar

The Generative Models have gained considerable attention in the field of unsupervised learning via a new and practical framework called Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) due to its outstanding data generation capability. Many models of GAN have proposed, and several practical applications emerged in various domains of computer vision and machine learning. Despite GAN's excellent success, there are still obstacles to stable training. The problems are due to Nash-equilibrium, internal covariate shift, mode collapse, vanishing gradient, and lack of proper evaluation metrics. Therefore, stable training is a crucial issue in different applications for the success of GAN. Herein, we survey several training solutions proposed by different researchers to stabilize GAN training. We survey, (I) the original GAN model and its modified classical versions, (II) detail analysis of various GAN applications in different domains, (III) detail study about the various GAN training obstacles as well as training solutions. Finally, we discuss several new issues as well as research outlines to the topic.


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