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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Scaling Graph-based Deep Learning models to larger networks

Oct 04, 2021
Miquel Ferriol-Galmés, José Suárez-Varela, Krzysztof Rusek, Pere Barlet-Ros, Albert Cabellos-Aparicio

Graph Neural Networks (GNN) have shown a strong potential to be integrated into commercial products for network control and management. Early works using GNN have demonstrated an unprecedented capability to learn from different network characteristics that are fundamentally represented as graphs, such as the topology, the routing configuration, or the traffic that flows along a series of nodes in the network. In contrast to previous solutions based on Machine Learning (ML), GNN enables to produce accurate predictions even in other networks unseen during the training phase. Nowadays, GNN is a hot topic in the Machine Learning field and, as such, we are witnessing great efforts to leverage its potential in many different fields (e.g., chemistry, physics, social networks). In this context, the Graph Neural Networking challenge 2021 brings a practical limitation of existing GNN-based solutions for networking: the lack of generalization to larger networks. This paper approaches the scalability problem by presenting a GNN-based solution that can effectively scale to larger networks including higher link capacities and aggregated traffic on links.

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An open GPS trajectory dataset and benchmark for travel mode detection

Sep 28, 2021
Jinyu Chen, Haoran Zhang, Xuan Song, Ryosuke Shibasaki

Travel mode detection has been a hot topic in the field of GPS trajectory-related processing. Former scholars have developed many mathematical methods to improve the accuracy of detection. Among these studies, almost all of the methods require ground truth dataset for training. A large amount of the studies choose to collect the GPS trajectory dataset for training by their customized ways. Currently, there is no open GPS dataset marked with travel mode. If there exists one, it will not only save a lot of efforts in model developing, but also help compare the performance of models. In this study, we propose and open GPS trajectory dataset marked with travel mode and benchmark for the travel mode detection. The dataset is collected by 7 independent volunteers in Japan and covers the time period of a complete month. The travel mode ranges from walking to railway. A part of routines are traveled repeatedly in different time slots to experience different road and travel conditions. We also provide a case study to distinguish the walking and bike trips in a massive GPS trajectory dataset.

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Improving Multimodal fusion via Mutual Dependency Maximisation

Sep 09, 2021
Pierre Colombo, Emile Chapuis, Matthieu Labeau, Chloe Clavel

Multimodal sentiment analysis is a trending area of research, and the multimodal fusion is one of its most active topic. Acknowledging humans communicate through a variety of channels (i.e visual, acoustic, linguistic), multimodal systems aim at integrating different unimodal representations into a synthetic one. So far, a consequent effort has been made on developing complex architectures allowing the fusion of these modalities. However, such systems are mainly trained by minimising simple losses such as $L_1$ or cross-entropy. In this work, we investigate unexplored penalties and propose a set of new objectives that measure the dependency between modalities. We demonstrate that our new penalties lead to a consistent improvement (up to $4.3$ on accuracy) across a large variety of state-of-the-art models on two well-known sentiment analysis datasets: \texttt{CMU-MOSI} and \texttt{CMU-MOSEI}. Our method not only achieves a new SOTA on both datasets but also produces representations that are more robust to modality drops. Finally, a by-product of our methods includes a statistical network which can be used to interpret the high dimensional representations learnt by the model.

* EMNLP 2021 

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A Large Visual, Qualitative and Quantitative Dataset of Web Pages

May 15, 2021
Christian Mejia-Escobar, Miguel Cazorla, Ester Martinez-Martin

The World Wide Web is not only one of the most important platforms of communication and information at present, but also an area of growing interest for scientific research. This motivates a lot of work and projects that require large amounts of data. However, there is no dataset that integrates the parameters and visual appearance of Web pages, because its collection is a costly task in terms of time and effort. With the support of various computer tools and programming scripts, we have created a large dataset of 49,438 Web pages. It consists of visual, textual and numerical data types, includes all countries worldwide, and considers a broad range of topics such as art, entertainment, economy, business, education, government, news, media, science, and environment, covering different cultural characteristics and varied design preferences. In this paper, we describe the process of collecting, debugging and publishing the final product, which is freely available. To demonstrate the usefulness of our dataset, we expose a binary classification model for detecting error Web pages, and a multi-class Web subject-based categorization, both problems using convolutional neural networks.

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An Enhanced Randomly Initialized Convolutional Neural Network for Columnar Cactus Recognition in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

May 10, 2021
Safa Ben Atitallah, Maha Driss, Wadii Boulila, Anis Koubaa, Nesrine Atitallah, Henda Ben Ghézala

Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have made a great performance for remote sensing image classification. Plant recognition using CNNs is one of the active deep learning research topics due to its added-value in different related fields, especially environmental conservation and natural areas preservation. Automatic recognition of plants in protected areas helps in the surveillance process of these zones and ensures the sustainability of their ecosystems. In this work, we propose an Enhanced Randomly Initialized Convolutional Neural Network (ERI-CNN) for the recognition of columnar cactus, which is an endemic plant that exists in the Tehuac\'an-Cuicatl\'an Valley in southeastern Mexico. We used a public dataset created by a group of researchers that consists of more than 20000 remote sensing images. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed model compared to other models reported in the literature like InceptionV3 and the modified LeNet-5 CNN. Our ERI-CNN provides 98% of accuracy, 97% of precision, 97% of recall, 97.5% as f1-score, and 0.056 loss.

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Long Short-Term Temporal Meta-learning in Online Recommendation

May 08, 2021
Ruobing Xie, Yalong Wang, Rui Wang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuanhang Zou, Feng Xia, Leyu Lin

An effective online recommendation system should jointly capture user long-term and short-term preferences in both user internal and external behaviors. However, it is challenging to conduct fast adaptations to variable new topics while making full use of all information in large-scale systems, due to the online efficiency limitation and complexity of real-world systems. To address this, we propose a novel Long Short-Term Temporal Meta-learning framework (LSTTM) for online recommendation, which captures user preferences from a global long-term graph and an internal short-term graph. To improve online learning for short-term interests, we propose a temporal MAML method with asynchronous online updating for fast adaptation, which regards recommendations at different time periods as different tasks. In experiments, LSTTM achieves significant improvements on both offline and online evaluations. LSTTM has also been deployed on a widely-used online system, affecting millions of users. The idea of temporal MAML can be easily transferred to other models and temporal tasks.

* 8 pages 

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Improving Response Quality with Backward Reasoning in Open-domain Dialogue Systems

Apr 30, 2021
Ziming Li, Julia Kiseleva, Maarten de Rijke

Being able to generate informative and coherent dialogue responses is crucial when designing human-like open-domain dialogue systems. Encoder-decoder-based dialogue models tend to produce generic and dull responses during the decoding step because the most predictable response is likely to be a non-informative response instead of the most suitable one. To alleviate this problem, we propose to train the generation model in a bidirectional manner by adding a backward reasoning step to the vanilla encoder-decoder training. The proposed backward reasoning step pushes the model to produce more informative and coherent content because the forward generation step's output is used to infer the dialogue context in the backward direction. The advantage of our method is that the forward generation and backward reasoning steps are trained simultaneously through the use of a latent variable to facilitate bidirectional optimization. Our method can improve response quality without introducing side information (e.g., a pre-trained topic model). The proposed bidirectional response generation method achieves state-of-the-art performance for response quality.

* 5 pages, 2 figures, Sigir 2021 short 

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The human-AI relationship in decision-making: AI explanation to support people on justifying their decisions

Feb 22, 2021
Juliana Jansen Ferreira, Mateus Monteiro

The explanation dimension of Artificial Intelligence (AI) based system has been a hot topic for the past years. Different communities have raised concerns about the increasing presence of AI in people's everyday tasks and how it can affect people's lives. There is a lot of research addressing the interpretability and transparency concepts of explainable AI (XAI), which are usually related to algorithms and Machine Learning (ML) models. But in decision-making scenarios, people need more awareness of how AI works and its outcomes to build a relationship with that system. Decision-makers usually need to justify their decision to others in different domains. If that decision is somehow based on or influenced by an AI-system outcome, the explanation about how the AI reached that result is key to building trust between AI and humans in decision-making scenarios. In this position paper, we discuss the role of XAI in decision-making scenarios, our vision of Decision-Making with AI-system in the loop, and explore one case from the literature about how XAI can impact people justifying their decisions, considering the importance of building the human-AI relationship for those scenarios.

* Pre-print of paper accepted in Workshop on Transparency And Explanations In Smart Systems (TEXSS) held in conjunction with ACM Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI) (April 2021) 

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A comparative study on movement feature in different directions for micro-expression recognition

Feb 16, 2021
Jinsheng Wei, Guanming Lu, Jingjie Yan

Micro-expression can reflect people's real emotions. Recognizing micro-expressions is difficult because they are small motions and have a short duration. As the research is deepening into micro-expression recognition, many effective features and methods have been proposed. To determine which direction of movement feature is easier for distinguishing micro-expressions, this paper selects 18 directions (including three types of horizontal, vertical and oblique movements) and proposes a new low-dimensional feature called the Histogram of Single Direction Gradient (HSDG) to study this topic. In this paper, HSDG in every direction is concatenated with LBP-TOP to obtain the LBP with Single Direction Gradient (LBP-SDG) and analyze which direction of movement feature is more discriminative for micro-expression recognition. As with some existing work, Euler Video Magnification (EVM) is employed as a preprocessing step. The experiments on the CASME II and SMIC-HS databases summarize the effective and optimal directions and demonstrate that HSDG in an optimal direction is discriminative, and the corresponding LBP-SDG achieves state-of-the-art performance using EVM.

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