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From Shallow to Deep Interactions Between Knowledge Representation, Reasoning and Machine Learning (Kay R. Amel group)

Dec 13, 2019
Zied Bouraoui, Antoine Cornuéjols, Thierry Denœux, Sébastien Destercke, Didier Dubois, Romain Guillaume, João Marques-Silva, Jérôme Mengin, Henri Prade, Steven Schockaert, Mathieu Serrurier, Christel Vrain

This paper proposes a tentative and original survey of meeting points between Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KRR) and Machine Learning (ML), two areas which have been developing quite separately in the last three decades. Some common concerns are identified and discussed such as the types of used representation, the roles of knowledge and data, the lack or the excess of information, or the need for explanations and causal understanding. Then some methodologies combining reasoning and learning are reviewed (such as inductive logic programming, neuro-symbolic reasoning, formal concept analysis, rule-based representations and ML, uncertainty in ML, or case-based reasoning and analogical reasoning), before discussing examples of synergies between KRR and ML (including topics such as belief functions on regression, EM algorithm versus revision, the semantic description of vector representations, the combination of deep learning with high level inference, knowledge graph completion, declarative frameworks for data mining, or preferences and recommendation). This paper is the first step of a work in progress aiming at a better mutual understanding of research in KRR and ML, and how they could cooperate.

* 53 pages 

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Self-driving scale car trained by Deep reinforcement Learning

Sep 08, 2019
Qi Zhang, Tao Du

This paper considers the problem of self-driving algorithm based on deep learning. This is a hot topic because self-driving is the most important application field of artificial intelligence. Existing work focused on deep learning which has the ability to learn end-to-end self-driving control directly from raw sensory data, but this method is just a mapping between images and driving. We prefer deep reinforcement learning to train a self-driving car in a virtual simulation environment created by Unity and then migrate to reality. Deep reinforcement learning makes the machine own the driving descision-making ability like human. The virtual to realistic training method can efficiently handle the problem that reinforcement learning requires reward from the environment which probably cause cars damge. We have derived a theoretical model and analysis on how to use Deep Q-learning to control a car to drive. We have carried out simulations in the Unity virtual environment for evaluating the performance. Finally, we successfully migrate te model to the real world and realize self-driving.


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Happiness Entailment: Automating Suggestions for Well-Being

Jul 23, 2019
Sara Evensen, Yoshihiko Suhara, Alon Halevy, Vivian Li, Wang-Chiew Tan, Saran Mumick

Understanding what makes people happy is a central topic in psychology. Prior work has mostly focused on developing self-reporting assessment tools for individuals and relies on experts to analyze the periodic reported assessments. One of the goals of the analysis is to understand what actions are necessary to encourage modifications in the behaviors of the individuals to improve their overall well-being. In this paper, we outline a complementary approach; on the assumption that the user journals her happy moments as short texts, a system can analyze these texts and propose sustainable suggestions for the user that may lead to an overall improvement in her well-being. We prototype one necessary component of such a system, the Happiness Entailment Recognition (HER) module, which takes as input a short text describing an event, a candidate suggestion, and outputs a determination about whether the suggestion is more likely to be good for this user based on the event described. This component is implemented as a neural network model with two encoders, one for the user input and one for the candidate actionable suggestion, with additional layers to capture psychologically significant features in the happy moment and suggestion.

* ACII 2019, 7 pages 

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The Many AI Challenges of Hearthstone

Jul 15, 2019
Amy K. Hoover, Julian Togelius, Scott Lee, Fernando de Mesentier Silva

Games have benchmarked AI methods since the inception of the field, with classic board games such as Chess and Go recently leaving room for video games with related yet different sets of challenges. The set of AI problems associated with video games has in recent decades expanded from simply playing games to win, to playing games in particular styles, generating game content, modeling players etc. Different games pose very different challenges for AI systems, and several different AI challenges can typically be posed by the same game. In this article we analyze the popular collectible card game Hearthstone (Blizzard 2014) and describe a varied set of interesting AI challenges posed by this game. Collectible card games are relatively understudied in the AI community, despite their popularity and the interesting challenges they pose. Analyzing a single game in-depth in the manner we do here allows us to see the entire field of AI and Games through the lens of a single game, discovering a few new variations on existing research topics.

* 12 pages. Journal paper 

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Cleaning tasks knowledge transfer between heterogeneous robots: a deep learning approach

Mar 13, 2019
Jaeseok Kim, Nino Cauli, Pedro Vicente, Bruno Damas, Alexandre Bernardino, José Santos-Victor, Filippo Cavallo

Nowadays, autonomous service robots are becoming an important topic in robotic research. Differently from typical industrial scenarios, with highly controlled environments, service robots must show an additional robustness to task perturbations and changes in the characteristics of their sensory feedback. In this paper a robot is taught to perform two different cleaning tasks over a table, using a learning from demonstration paradigm. However, differently from other approaches, a convolutional neural network is used to generalize the demonstrations to different, not yet seen dirt or stain patterns on the same table using only visual feedback, and to perform cleaning movements accordingly. Robustness to robot posture and illumination changes is achieved using data augmentation techniques and camera images transformation. This robustness allows the transfer of knowledge regarding execution of cleaning tasks between heterogeneous robots operating in different environmental settings. To demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach, a network trained in Lisbon to perform cleaning tasks, using the iCub robot, is successfully employed by the DoRo robot in Peccioli, Italy.


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Robust Recovery Controller for a Quadrupedal Robot using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Jan 22, 2019
Joonho Lee, Jemin Hwangbo, Marco Hutter

The ability to recover from a fall is an essential feature for a legged robot to navigate in challenging environments robustly. Until today, there has been very little progress on this topic. Current solutions mostly build upon (heuristically) predefined trajectories, resulting in unnatural behaviors and requiring considerable effort in engineering system-specific components. In this paper, we present an approach based on model-free Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) to control recovery maneuvers of quadrupedal robots using a hierarchical behavior-based controller. The controller consists of four neural network policies including three behaviors and one behavior selector to coordinate them. Each of them is trained individually in simulation and deployed directly on a real system. We experimentally validate our approach on the quadrupedal robot ANYmal, which is a dog-sized quadrupedal system with 12 degrees of freedom. With our method, ANYmal manifests dynamic and reactive recovery behaviors to recover from an arbitrary fall configuration within less than 5 seconds. We tested the recovery maneuver more than 100 times, and the success rate was higher than 97 %.


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Neural Style Transfer: A Review

Oct 30, 2018
Yongcheng Jing, Yezhou Yang, Zunlei Feng, Jingwen Ye, Yizhou Yu, Mingli Song

The seminal work of Gatys et al. demonstrated the power of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) in creating artistic imagery by separating and recombining image content and style. This process of using CNNs to render a content image in different styles is referred to as Neural Style Transfer (NST). Since then, NST has become a trending topic both in academic literature and industrial applications. It is receiving increasing attention and a variety of approaches are proposed to either improve or extend the original NST algorithm. In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current progress towards NST. We first propose a taxonomy of current algorithms in the field of NST. Then, we present several evaluation methods and compare different NST algorithms both qualitatively and quantitatively. The review concludes with a discussion of various applications of NST and open problems for future research. A list of papers discussed in this review, corresponding codes, pre-trained models and more comparison results are publicly available at https://github.com/ycjing/Neural-Style-Transfer-Papers.

* Project page: https://github.com/ycjing/Neural-Style-Transfer-Papers 

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A Theoretical Framework of Approximation Error Analysis of Evolutionary Algorithms

Oct 26, 2018
Jun He, Yu Chen, Yuren Zhou

In the empirical study of evolutionary algorithms, the solution quality is evaluated by either the fitness value or approximation error. The latter measures the fitness difference between an approximation solution and the optimal solution. Since the approximation error analysis is more convenient than the direct estimation of the fitness value, this paper focuses on approximation error analysis. However, it is straightforward to extend all related results from the approximation error to the fitness value. Although the evaluation of solution quality plays an essential role in practice, few rigorous analyses have been conducted on this topic. This paper aims at establishing a novel theoretical framework of approximation error analysis of evolutionary algorithms for discrete optimization. This framework is divided into two parts. The first part is about exact expressions of the approximation error. Two methods, Jordan form and Schur's triangularization, are presented to obtain an exact expression. The second part is about upper bounds on approximation error. Two methods, convergence rate and auxiliary matrix iteration, are proposed to estimate the upper bound. The applicability of this framework is demonstrated through several examples.


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MSplit LBI: Realizing Feature Selection and Dense Estimation Simultaneously in Few-shot and Zero-shot Learning

Jun 12, 2018
Bo Zhao, Xinwei Sun, Yanwei Fu, Yuan Yao, Yizhou Wang

It is one typical and general topic of learning a good embedding model to efficiently learn the representation coefficients between two spaces/subspaces. To solve this task, $L_{1}$ regularization is widely used for the pursuit of feature selection and avoiding overfitting, and yet the sparse estimation of features in $L_{1}$ regularization may cause the underfitting of training data. $L_{2}$ regularization is also frequently used, but it is a biased estimator. In this paper, we propose the idea that the features consist of three orthogonal parts, \emph{namely} sparse strong signals, dense weak signals and random noise, in which both strong and weak signals contribute to the fitting of data. To facilitate such novel decomposition, \emph{MSplit} LBI is for the first time proposed to realize feature selection and dense estimation simultaneously. We provide theoretical and simulational verification that our method exceeds $L_{1}$ and $L_{2}$ regularization, and extensive experimental results show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance in the few-shot and zero-shot learning.

* Accepted by the 35th International Conference on Machine Learning 

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The Anatomy of a Modular System for Media Content Analysis

Jun 04, 2018
Ilias Flaounas, Thomas Lansdall-Welfare, Panagiota Antonakaki, Nello Cristianini

Intelligent systems for the annotation of media content are increasingly being used for the automation of parts of social science research. In this domain the problem of integrating various Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms into a single intelligent system arises spontaneously. As part of our ongoing effort in automating media content analysis for the social sciences, we have built a modular system by combining multiple AI modules into a flexible framework in which they can cooperate in complex tasks. Our system combines data gathering, machine translation, topic classification, extraction and annotation of entities and social networks, as well as many other tasks that have been perfected over the past years of AI research. Over the last few years, it has allowed us to realise a series of scientific studies over a vast range of applications including comparative studies between news outlets and media content in different countries, modelling of user preferences, and monitoring public mood. The framework is flexible and allows the design and implementation of modular agents, where simple modules cooperate in the annotation of a large dataset without central coordination.

* Updated to include previously missing figures 

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