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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Classifying Idiomatic and Literal Expressions Using Topic Models and Intensity of Emotions

Feb 27, 2018
Jing Peng, Anna Feldman, Ekaterina Vylomova

We describe an algorithm for automatic classification of idiomatic and literal expressions. Our starting point is that words in a given text segment, such as a paragraph, that are highranking representatives of a common topic of discussion are less likely to be a part of an idiomatic expression. Our additional hypothesis is that contexts in which idioms occur, typically, are more affective and therefore, we incorporate a simple analysis of the intensity of the emotions expressed by the contexts. We investigate the bag of words topic representation of one to three paragraphs containing an expression that should be classified as idiomatic or literal (a target phrase). We extract topics from paragraphs containing idioms and from paragraphs containing literals using an unsupervised clustering method, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) (Blei et al., 2003). Since idiomatic expressions exhibit the property of non-compositionality, we assume that they usually present different semantics than the words used in the local topic. We treat idioms as semantic outliers, and the identification of a semantic shift as outlier detection. Thus, this topic representation allows us to differentiate idioms from literals using local semantic contexts. Our results are encouraging.

* EMNLP 2014 

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Understanding the Spatio-temporal Topic Dynamics of Covid-19 using Nonnegative Tensor Factorization: A Case Study

Sep 19, 2020
Thirunavukarasu Balasubramaniam, Richi Nayak, Md Abul Bashar

Social media platforms facilitate mankind a data-driven world by enabling billions of people to share their thoughts and activities ubiquitously. This huge collection of data, if analysed properly, can provide useful insights into people's behavior. More than ever, now is a crucial time under the Covid-19 pandemic to understand people's online behaviors detailing what topics are being discussed, and where (space) and when (time) they are discussed. Given the high complexity and poor quality of the huge social media data, an effective spatio-temporal topic detection method is needed. This paper proposes a tensor-based representation of social media data and Non-negative Tensor Factorization (NTF) to identify the topics discussed in social media data along with the spatio-temporal topic dynamics. A case study on Covid-19 related tweets from the Australia Twittersphere is presented to identify and visualize spatio-temporal topic dynamics on Covid-19

* Accepted in 18th Australasian Data Mining Conference (AusDM) 

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Bibliographic Analysis with the Citation Network Topic Model

Sep 22, 2016
Kar Wai Lim, Wray Buntine

Bibliographic analysis considers author's research areas, the citation network and paper content among other things. In this paper, we combine these three in a topic model that produces a bibliographic model of authors, topics and documents using a non-parametric extension of a combination of the Poisson mixed-topic link model and the author-topic model. We propose a novel and efficient inference algorithm for the model to explore subsets of research publications from CiteSeerX. Our model demonstrates improved performance in both model fitting and a clustering task compared to several baselines.

* Proceedings of the Sixth Asian Conference on Machine Learning (ACML), pp. 142-158. JMLR. 2014 
* A copy of ACML paper. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1609.06532 

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Focusing Knowledge-based Graph Argument Mining via Topic Modeling

Feb 03, 2021
Patrick Abels, Zahra Ahmadi, Sophie Burkhardt, Benjamin Schiller, Iryna Gurevych, Stefan Kramer

Decision-making usually takes five steps: identifying the problem, collecting data, extracting evidence, identifying pro and con arguments, and making decisions. Focusing on extracting evidence, this paper presents a hybrid model that combines latent Dirichlet allocation and word embeddings to obtain external knowledge from structured and unstructured data. We study the task of sentence-level argument mining, as arguments mostly require some degree of world knowledge to be identified and understood. Given a topic and a sentence, the goal is to classify whether a sentence represents an argument in regard to the topic. We use a topic model to extract topic- and sentence-specific evidence from the structured knowledge base Wikidata, building a graph based on the cosine similarity between the entity word vectors of Wikidata and the vector of the given sentence. Also, we build a second graph based on topic-specific articles found via Google to tackle the general incompleteness of structured knowledge bases. Combining these graphs, we obtain a graph-based model which, as our evaluation shows, successfully capitalizes on both structured and unstructured data.


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Learning Multilingual Topics from Incomparable Corpus

Jun 11, 2018
Shudong Hao, Michael J. Paul

Multilingual topic models enable crosslingual tasks by extracting consistent topics from multilingual corpora. Most models require parallel or comparable training corpora, which limits their ability to generalize. In this paper, we first demystify the knowledge transfer mechanism behind multilingual topic models by defining an alternative but equivalent formulation. Based on this analysis, we then relax the assumption of training data required by most existing models, creating a model that only requires a dictionary for training. Experiments show that our new method effectively learns coherent multilingual topics from partially and fully incomparable corpora with limited amounts of dictionary resources.

* To appear in International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING), 2018 

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Changepoint Analysis of Topic Proportions in Temporal Text Data

Nov 29, 2021
Avinandan Bose, Soumendu Sundar Mukherjee

Changepoint analysis deals with unsupervised detection and/or estimation of time-points in time-series data, when the distribution generating the data changes. In this article, we consider \emph{offline} changepoint detection in the context of large scale textual data. We build a specialised temporal topic model with provisions for changepoints in the distribution of topic proportions. As full likelihood based inference in this model is computationally intractable, we develop a computationally tractable approximate inference procedure. More specifically, we use sample splitting to estimate topic polytopes first and then apply a likelihood ratio statistic together with a modified version of the wild binary segmentation algorithm of Fryzlewicz et al. (2014). Our methodology facilitates automated detection of structural changes in large corpora without the need of manual processing by domain experts. As changepoints under our model correspond to changes in topic structure, the estimated changepoints are often highly interpretable as marking the surge or decline in popularity of a fashionable topic. We apply our procedure on two large datasets: (i) a corpus of English literature from the period 1800-1922 (Underwoodet al., 2015); (ii) abstracts from the High Energy Physics arXiv repository (Clementet al., 2019). We obtain some historically well-known changepoints and discover some new ones.

* 32 pages, 9 figures 

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Model-Parallel Inference for Big Topic Models

Nov 10, 2014
Xun Zheng, Jin Kyu Kim, Qirong Ho, Eric P. Xing

In real world industrial applications of topic modeling, the ability to capture gigantic conceptual space by learning an ultra-high dimensional topical representation, i.e., the so-called "big model", is becoming the next desideratum after enthusiasms on "big data", especially for fine-grained downstream tasks such as online advertising, where good performances are usually achieved by regression-based predictors built on millions if not billions of input features. The conventional data-parallel approach for training gigantic topic models turns out to be rather inefficient in utilizing the power of parallelism, due to the heavy dependency on a centralized image of "model". Big model size also poses another challenge on the storage, where available model size is bounded by the smallest RAM of nodes. To address these issues, we explore another type of parallelism, namely model-parallelism, which enables training of disjoint blocks of a big topic model in parallel. By integrating data-parallelism with model-parallelism, we show that dependencies between distributed elements can be handled seamlessly, achieving not only faster convergence but also an ability to tackle significantly bigger model size. We describe an architecture for model-parallel inference of LDA, and present a variant of collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithm tailored for it. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of this system to handle topic modeling with unprecedented amount of 200 billion model variables only on a low-end cluster with very limited computational resources and bandwidth.


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Community-Detection via Hashtag-Graphs for Semi-Supervised NMF Topic Models

Nov 17, 2021
Mattias Luber, Anton Thielmann, Christoph Weisser, Benjamin Säfken

Extracting topics from large collections of unstructured text-documents has become a central task in current NLP applications and algorithms like NMF, LDA as well as their generalizations are the well-established current state of the art. However, especially when it comes to short text documents like Tweets, these approaches often lead to unsatisfying results due to the sparsity of the document-feature matrices. Even though, several approaches have been proposed to overcome this sparsity by taking additional information into account, these are merely focused on the aggregation of similar documents and the estimation of word-co-occurrences. This ultimately completely neglects the fact that a lot of topical-information can be actually retrieved from so-called hashtag-graphs by applying common community detection algorithms. Therefore, this paper outlines a novel approach on how to integrate topic structures of hashtag graphs into the estimation of topic models by connecting graph-based community detection and semi-supervised NMF. By applying this approach on recently streamed Twitter data it will be seen that this procedure actually leads to more intuitive and humanly interpretable topics.


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Variational Topic Inference for Chest X-Ray Report Generation

Jul 15, 2021
Ivona Najdenkoska, Xiantong Zhen, Marcel Worring, Ling Shao

Automating report generation for medical imaging promises to reduce workload and assist diagnosis in clinical practice. Recent work has shown that deep learning models can successfully caption natural images. However, learning from medical data is challenging due to the diversity and uncertainty inherent in the reports written by different radiologists with discrepant expertise and experience. To tackle these challenges, we propose variational topic inference for automatic report generation. Specifically, we introduce a set of topics as latent variables to guide sentence generation by aligning image and language modalities in a latent space. The topics are inferred in a conditional variational inference framework, with each topic governing the generation of a sentence in the report. Further, we adopt a visual attention module that enables the model to attend to different locations in the image and generate more informative descriptions. We conduct extensive experiments on two benchmarks, namely Indiana U. Chest X-rays and MIMIC-CXR. The results demonstrate that our proposed variational topic inference method can generate novel reports rather than mere copies of reports used in training, while still achieving comparable performance to state-of-the-art methods in terms of standard language generation criteria.

* To be published in the International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention 2021 

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Analyses of Multi-collection Corpora via Compound Topic Modeling

Jun 17, 2019
Clint P. George, Wei Xia, George Michailidis

As electronically stored data grow in daily life, obtaining novel and relevant information becomes challenging in text mining. Thus people have sought statistical methods based on term frequency, matrix algebra, or topic modeling for text mining. Popular topic models have centered on one single text collection, which is deficient for comparative text analyses. We consider a setting where one can partition the corpus into subcollections. Each subcollection shares a common set of topics, but there exists relative variation in topic proportions among collections. Including any prior knowledge about the corpus (e.g. organization structure), we propose the compound latent Dirichlet allocation (cLDA) model, improving on previous work, encouraging generalizability, and depending less on user-input parameters. To identify the parameters of interest in cLDA, we study Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and variational inference approaches extensively, and suggest an efficient MCMC method. We evaluate cLDA qualitatively and quantitatively using both synthetic and real-world corpora. The usability study on some real-world corpora illustrates the superiority of cLDA to explore the underlying topics automatically but also model their connections and variations across multiple collections.


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