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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Factorized Deep Generative Models for Trajectory Generation with Spatiotemporal-Validity Constraints

Sep 20, 2020
Liming Zhang, Liang Zhao, Dieter Pfoser

Trajectory data generation is an important domain that characterizes the generative process of mobility data. Traditional methods heavily rely on predefined heuristics and distributions and are weak in learning unknown mechanisms. Inspired by the success of deep generative neural networks for images and texts, a fast-developing research topic is deep generative models for trajectory data which can learn expressively explanatory models for sophisticated latent patterns. This is a nascent yet promising domain for many applications. We first propose novel deep generative models factorizing time-variant and time-invariant latent variables that characterize global and local semantics, respectively. We then develop new inference strategies based on variational inference and constrained optimization to encapsulate the spatiotemporal validity. New deep neural network architectures have been developed to implement the inference and generation models with newly-generalized latent variable priors. The proposed methods achieved significant improvements in quantitative and qualitative evaluations in extensive experiments.


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When Image Decomposition Meets Deep Learning: A Novel Infrared and Visible Image Fusion Method

Sep 02, 2020
Zixiang Zhao, Shuang Xu, Rui Feng, Chunxia Zhang, Junmin Liu, Jiangshe Zhang

Infrared and visible image fusion, as a hot topic in image processing and image enhancement, aims to produce fused images retaining the detail texture information in visible images and the thermal radiation information in infrared images. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stream auto-encoder (AE) based fusion network. The core idea is that the encoder decomposes an image into base and detail feature maps with low- and high-frequency information, respectively, and that the decoder is responsible for the original image reconstruction. To this end, a well-designed loss function is established to make the base/detail feature maps similar/dissimilar. In the test phase, base and detail feature maps are respectively merged via a fusion module, and the fused image is recovered by the decoder. Qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate that our method can generate fusion images containing highlighted targets and abundant detail texture information with strong reproducibility and meanwhile superior than the state-of-the-art (SOTA) approaches.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2003.09210 

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When Homomorphic Encryption Marries Secret Sharing: Secure Large-Scale Sparse Logistic Regression and Applications in Risk Control

Aug 20, 2020
Chaochao Chen, Jun Zhou, Li Wang, Xibin Wu, Wenjing Fang, Jin Tan, Lei Wang, Xiaoxi Ji, Alex Liu, Hao Wang, Cheng Hong

Logistic Regression (LR) is the most widely used machine learning model in industry due to its efficiency, robustness, and interpretability. Meanwhile, with the problem of data isolation and the requirement of high model performance, building secure and efficient LR model for multi-parties becomes a hot topic for both academia and industry. Existing works mainly employ either Homomorphic Encryption (HE) or Secret Sharing (SS) to build secure LR. HE based methods can deal with high-dimensional sparse features, but they may suffer potential security risk. In contrast, SS based methods have provable security but they have efficiency issue under high-dimensional sparse features. In this paper, we first present CAESAR, which combines HE and SS to build seCure lArge-scalE SpArse logistic Regression model and thus has the advantages of both efficiency and security. We then present the distributed implementation of CAESAR for scalability requirement. We finally deploy CAESAR into a risk control task and conduct comprehensive experiments to study the efficiency of CAESAR.


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Adaptive Multi-level Hyper-gradient Descent

Aug 19, 2020
Renlong Jie, Junbin Gao, Andrey Vasnev, Minh-Ngoc Tran

Adaptive learning rates can lead to faster convergence and better final performance for deep learning models. There are several widely known human-designed adaptive optimizers such as Adam and RMSProp, gradient based adaptive methods such as hyper-descent and L4, and meta learning approaches including learning to learn. However, the issue of balancing adaptiveness and over-parameterization is still a topic to be addressed. In this study, we investigate different levels of learning rate adaptation based on the framework of hyper-gradient descent, and further propose a method that adaptively learns the model parameters for combining different levels of adaptations. Meanwhile, we show the relationship between adding regularization on over-parameterized learning rates and building combinations of different levels of adaptive learning rates. The experiments on several network architectures including feed-forward networks, LeNet-5 and ResNet-34 show that the proposed multi-level adaptive approach can outperform baseline adaptive methods in a variety circumstances with statistical significance.


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Dialect Diversity in Text Summarization on Twitter

Jul 15, 2020
L. Elisa Celis, Vijay Keswani

Extractive summarization algorithms can be used on Twitter data to return a set of posts that succinctly capture a topic. However, Twitter datasets have a significant fraction of posts written in different English dialects. We study the dialect bias in the summaries of such datasets generated by common summarization algorithms and observe that, for datasets that have sentences from more than one dialect, most summarization algorithms return summaries that under-represent the minority dialect. To correct for this bias, we propose a framework that takes an existing summarization algorithm as a blackbox and, using a small set of dialect-diverse sentences, returns a summary that is relatively more dialect-diverse. Crucially, our approach does not need the sentences in the dataset to have dialect labels, ensuring that the diversification process is independent of dialect classification and language identification models. We show the efficacy of our approach on Twitter datasets containing posts written in dialects used by different social groups defined by race, region or gender; in all cases, our approach leads to improved dialect diversity compared to the standard summarization approaches.


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Misinformation Has High Perplexity

Jun 10, 2020
Nayeon Lee, Yejin Bang, Andrea Madotto, Pascale Fung

Debunking misinformation is an important and time-critical task as there could be adverse consequences when misinformation is not quashed promptly. However, the usual supervised approach to debunking via misinformation classification requires human-annotated data and is not suited to the fast time-frame of newly emerging events such as the COVID-19 outbreak. In this paper, we postulate that misinformation itself has higher perplexity compared to truthful statements, and propose to leverage the perplexity to debunk false claims in an unsupervised manner. First, we extract reliable evidence from scientific and news sources according to sentence similarity to the claims. Second, we prime a language model with the extracted evidence and finally evaluate the correctness of given claims based on the perplexity scores at debunking time. We construct two new COVID-19-related test sets, one is scientific, and another is political in content, and empirically verify that our system performs favorably compared to existing systems. We are releasing these datasets publicly to encourage more research in debunking misinformation on COVID-19 and other topics.


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Misinformation has High Perplexity

Jun 08, 2020
Nayeon Lee, Yejin Bang, Andrea Madotto, Pascale Fung

Debunking misinformation is an important and time-critical task as there could be adverse consequences when misinformation is not quashed promptly. However, the usual supervised approach to debunking via misinformation classification requires human-annotated data and is not suited to the fast time-frame of newly emerging events such as the COVID-19 outbreak. In this paper, we postulate that misinformation itself has higher perplexity compared to truthful statements, and propose to leverage the perplexity to debunk false claims in an unsupervised manner. First, we extract reliable evidence from scientific and news sources according to sentence similarity to the claims. Second, we prime a language model with the extracted evidence and finally evaluate the correctness of given claims based on the perplexity scores at debunking time. We construct two new COVID-19-related test sets, one is scientific, and another is political in content, and empirically verify that our system performs favorably compared to existing systems. We are releasing these datasets publicly to encourage more research in debunking misinformation on COVID-19 and other topics.


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The SIGMORPHON 2020 Shared Task on Unsupervised Morphological Paradigm Completion

May 28, 2020
Katharina Kann, Arya McCarthy, Garrett Nicolai, Mans Hulden

In this paper, we describe the findings of the SIGMORPHON 2020 shared task on unsupervised morphological paradigm completion (SIGMORPHON 2020 Task 2), a novel task in the field of inflectional morphology. Participants were asked to submit systems which take raw text and a list of lemmas as input, and output all inflected forms, i.e., the entire morphological paradigm, of each lemma. In order to simulate a realistic use case, we first released data for 5 development languages. However, systems were officially evaluated on 9 surprise languages, which were only revealed a few days before the submission deadline. We provided a modular baseline system, which is a pipeline of 4 components. 3 teams submitted a total of 7 systems, but, surprisingly, none of the submitted systems was able to improve over the baseline on average over all 9 test languages. Only on 3 languages did a submitted system obtain the best results. This shows that unsupervised morphological paradigm completion is still largely unsolved. We present an analysis here, so that this shared task will ground further research on the topic.

* SIGMORPHON 2020 

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Demographic Bias in Biometrics: A Survey on an Emerging Challenge

Apr 14, 2020
P. Drozdowski, C. Rathgeb, A. Dantcheva, N. Damer, C. Busch

Systems incorporating biometric technologies have become ubiquitous in personal, commercial, and governmental identity management applications. Both cooperative (e.g. access control) and non-cooperative (e.g. surveillance and forensics) systems have benefited from biometrics. Such systems rely on the uniqueness of certain biological or behavioural characteristics of human beings, which enable for individuals to be reliably recognised using automated algorithms. Recently, however, there has been a wave of public and academic concerns regarding the existence of systemic bias in automated decision systems (including biometrics). Most prominently, face recognition algorithms have often been labelled as "racist" or "biased" by the media, non-governmental organisations, and researchers alike. The main contributions of this article are: (1) an overview of the topic of algorithmic bias in the context of biometrics, (2) a comprehensive survey of the existing literature on biometric bias estimation and mitigation, (3) a discussion of the pertinent technical and social matters, and (4) an outline of the remaining challenges and future work items, both from technological and social points of view.

* 15 pages, 3 figures, 3 tables. Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society. Update after first round of peer review 

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