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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Data-to-Value: An Evaluation-First Methodology for Natural Language Projects

Jan 19, 2022
Jochen L. Leidner

Big data, i.e. collecting, storing and processing of data at scale, has recently been possible due to the arrival of clusters of commodity computers powered by application-level distributed parallel operating systems like HDFS/Hadoop/Spark, and such infrastructures have revolutionized data mining at scale. For data mining project to succeed more consistently, some methodologies were developed (e.g. CRISP-DM, SEMMA, KDD), but these do not account for (1) very large scales of processing, (2) dealing with textual (unstructured) data (i.e. Natural Language Processing (NLP, "text analytics"), and (3) non-technical considerations (e.g. legal, ethical, project managerial aspects). To address these shortcomings, a new methodology, called "Data to Value" (D2V), is introduced, which is guided by a detailed catalog of questions in order to avoid a disconnect of big data text analytics project team with the topic when facing rather abstract box-and-arrow diagrams commonly associated with methodologies.

* 9 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables 

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Signal Strength and Noise Drive Feature Preference in CNN Image Classifiers

Jan 19, 2022
Max Wolff, Stuart Wolff

Feature preference in Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) image classifiers is integral to their decision making process, and while the topic has been well studied, it is still not understood at a fundamental level. We test a range of task relevant feature attributes (including shape, texture, and color) with varying degrees of signal and noise in highly controlled CNN image classification experiments using synthetic datasets to determine feature preferences. We find that CNNs will prefer features with stronger signal strength and lower noise irrespective of whether the feature is texture, shape, or color. This provides guidance for a predictive model for task relevant feature preferences, demonstrates pathways for bias in machine models that can be avoided with careful controls on experimental setup, and suggests that comparisons between how humans and machines prefer task relevant features in vision classification tasks should be revisited. Code to reproduce experiments in this paper can be found at \url{https://github.com/mwolff31/signal_preference}.

* Accepted at SVRHM 2021 

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Noninvasive Fetal Electrocardiography: Models, Technologies and Algorithms

Dec 24, 2021
Reza Sameni

The fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) was first recorded from the maternal abdominal surface in the early 1900s. During the past fifty years, the most advanced electronics technologies and signal processing algorithms have been used to convert noninvasive fetal electrocardiography into a reliable technology for fetal cardiac monitoring. In this chapter, the major signal processing techniques, which have been developed for the modeling, extraction and analysis of the fECG from noninvasive maternal abdominal recordings are reviewed and compared with one another in detail. The major topics of the chapter include: 1) the electrophysiology of the fECG from the signal processing viewpoint, 2) the mathematical model of the maternal volume conduction media and the waveform models of the fECG acquired from body surface leads, 3) the signal acquisition requirements, 4) model-based techniques for fECG noise and interference cancellation, including adaptive filters and semi-blind source separation techniques, and 5) recent algorithmic advances for fetal motion tracking and online fECG extraction from few number of channels.

* In Innovative Technologies and Signal Processing in Perinatal Medicine (pp. 99-146). Springer International Publishing (2020) 

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Explainable AI (XAI): A Systematic Meta-Survey of Current Challenges and Future Opportunities

Nov 11, 2021
Waddah Saeed, Christian Omlin

The past decade has seen significant progress in artificial intelligence (AI), which has resulted in algorithms being adopted for resolving a variety of problems. However, this success has been met by increasing model complexity and employing black-box AI models that lack transparency. In response to this need, Explainable AI (XAI) has been proposed to make AI more transparent and thus advance the adoption of AI in critical domains. Although there are several reviews of XAI topics in the literature that identified challenges and potential research directions in XAI, these challenges and research directions are scattered. This study, hence, presents a systematic meta-survey for challenges and future research directions in XAI organized in two themes: (1) general challenges and research directions in XAI and (2) challenges and research directions in XAI based on machine learning life cycle's phases: design, development, and deployment. We believe that our meta-survey contributes to XAI literature by providing a guide for future exploration in the XAI area.

* 29 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables 

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Benchmark Problems for CEC2021 Competition on Evolutionary Transfer Multiobjectve Optimization

Oct 15, 2021
Songbai Liu, Qiuzhen Lin, Kay Chen Tan, Qing Li

Evolutionary transfer multiobjective optimization (ETMO) has been becoming a hot research topic in the field of evolutionary computation, which is based on the fact that knowledge learning and transfer across the related optimization exercises can improve the efficiency of others. Besides, the potential for transfer optimization is deemed invaluable from the standpoint of human-like problem-solving capabilities where knowledge gather and reuse are instinctive. To promote the research on ETMO, benchmark problems are of great importance to ETMO algorithm analysis, which helps designers or practitioners to understand the merit and demerit better of ETMO algorithms. Therefore, a total number of 40 benchmark functions are proposed in this report, covering diverse types and properties in the case of knowledge transfer, such as various formulation models, various PS geometries and PF shapes, large-scale of variables, dynamically changed environment, and so on. All the benchmark functions have been implemented in JAVA code, which can be downloaded on the following website: https://github.com/songbai-liu/etmo.

* 20 pages, 1 figure, technical report for competition 

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Model Based Control of Soft Robots: A Survey of the State of the Art and Open Challenges

Oct 04, 2021
Cosimo Della Santina, Christian Duriez, Daniela Rus

Continuum soft robots are mechanical systems entirely made of continuously deformable elements. This design solution aims to bring robots closer to invertebrate animals and soft appendices of vertebrate animals (e.g., an elephant's trunk, a monkey's tail). This work aims to introduce the control theorist perspective to this novel development in robotics. We aim to remove the barriers to entry into this field by presenting existing results and future challenges using a unified language and within a coherent framework. Indeed, the main difficulty in entering this field is the wide variability of terminology and scientific backgrounds, making it quite hard to acquire a comprehensive view on the topic. Another limiting factor is that it is not obvious where to draw a clear line between the limitations imposed by the technology not being mature yet and the challenges intrinsic to this class of robots. In this work, we argue that the intrinsic effects are the continuum or multi-body dynamics, the presence of a non-negligible elastic potential field, and the variability in sensing and actuation strategies.

* 69 pages, 13 figures 

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The emojification of sentiment on social media: Collection and analysis of a longitudinal Twitter sentiment dataset

Aug 31, 2021
Wenjie Yin, Rabab Alkhalifa, Arkaitz Zubiaga

Social media, as a means for computer-mediated communication, has been extensively used to study the sentiment expressed by users around events or topics. There is however a gap in the longitudinal study of how sentiment evolved in social media over the years. To fill this gap, we develop TM-Senti, a new large-scale, distantly supervised Twitter sentiment dataset with over 184 million tweets and covering a time period of over seven years. We describe and assess our methodology to put together a large-scale, emoticon- and emoji-based labelled sentiment analysis dataset, along with an analysis of the resulting dataset. Our analysis highlights interesting temporal changes, among others in the increasing use of emojis over emoticons. We publicly release the dataset for further research in tasks including sentiment analysis and text classification of tweets. The dataset can be fully rehydrated including tweet metadata and without missing tweets thanks to the archive of tweets publicly available on the Internet Archive, which the dataset is based on.


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Opinion Prediction with User Fingerprinting

Jul 31, 2021
Kishore Tumarada, Yifan Zhang, Dr. Fan Yang, Dr. Eduard Dragut, Dr. Omprakash Gnawali, Dr. Arjun Mukherjee

Opinion prediction is an emerging research area with diverse real-world applications, such as market research and situational awareness. We identify two lines of approaches to the problem of opinion prediction. One uses topic-based sentiment analysis with time-series modeling, while the other uses static embedding of text. The latter approaches seek user-specific solutions by generating user fingerprints. Such approaches are useful in predicting user's reactions to unseen content. In this work, we propose a novel dynamic fingerprinting method that leverages contextual embedding of user's comments conditioned on relevant user's reading history. We integrate BERT variants with a recurrent neural network to generate predictions. The results show up to 13\% improvement in micro F1-score compared to previous approaches. Experimental results show novel insights that were previously unknown such as better predictions for an increase in dynamic history length, the impact of the nature of the article on performance, thereby laying the foundation for further research.

* 9 pages, 6 figures, RANLP conference 2021 

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Emotion Recognition for Healthcare Surveillance Systems Using Neural Networks: A Survey

Jul 13, 2021
Marwan Dhuheir, Abdullatif Albaseer, Emna Baccour, Aiman Erbad, Mohamed Abdallah, Mounir Hamdi

Recognizing the patient's emotions using deep learning techniques has attracted significant attention recently due to technological advancements. Automatically identifying the emotions can help build smart healthcare centers that can detect depression and stress among the patients in order to start the medication early. Using advanced technology to identify emotions is one of the most exciting topics as it defines the relationships between humans and machines. Machines learned how to predict emotions by adopting various methods. In this survey, we present recent research in the field of using neural networks to recognize emotions. We focus on studying emotions' recognition from speech, facial expressions, and audio-visual input and show the different techniques of deploying these algorithms in the real world. These three emotion recognition techniques can be used as a surveillance system in healthcare centers to monitor patients. We conclude the survey with a presentation of the challenges and the related future work to provide an insight into the applications of using emotion recognition.

* conference paper accepted and presented at 17th Int. Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing Conference - IWCMC 2021, Harbin, China 

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Deep Learning for Network Traffic Classification

Jun 02, 2021
Niloofar Bayat, Weston Jackson, Derrick Liu

Monitoring network traffic to identify content, services, and applications is an active research topic in network traffic control systems. While modern firewalls provide the capability to decrypt packets, this is not appealing for privacy advocates. Hence, identifying any information from encrypted traffic is a challenging task. Nonetheless, previous work has identified machine learning methods that may enable application and service identification. The process involves high level feature extraction from network packet data then training a robust machine learning classifier for traffic identification. We propose a classification technique using an ensemble of deep learning architectures on packet, payload, and inter-arrival time sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first time such deep learning architectures have been applied to the Server Name Indication (SNI) classification problem. Our ensemble model beats the state of the art machine learning methods and our up-to-date model can be found on github: \url{https://github.com/niloofarbayat/NetworkClassification}


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