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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Invariant-equivariant representation learning for multi-class data

Feb 08, 2019
Ilya Feige

Representations learnt through deep neural networks tend to be highly informative, but opaque in terms of what information they learn to encode. We introduce an approach to probabilistic modelling that learns to represent data with two separate deep representations: an invariant representation that encodes the information of the class from which the data belongs, and an equivariant representation that encodes the symmetry transformation defining the particular data point within the class manifold (equivariant in the sense that the representation varies naturally with symmetry transformations). This approach is based primarily on the strategic routing of data through the two latent variables, and thus is conceptually transparent, easy to implement, and in-principle generally applicable to any data comprised of discrete classes of continuous distributions (e.g. objects in images, topics in language, individuals in behavioural data). We demonstrate qualitatively compelling representation learning and competitive quantitative performance, in both supervised and semi-supervised settings, versus comparable modelling approaches in the literature with little fine tuning.

* 8 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables, 2 appendices 

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SAGA with Arbitrary Sampling

Jan 24, 2019
Xu Qian, Zheng Qu, Peter Richtárik

We study the problem of minimizing the average of a very large number of smooth functions, which is of key importance in training supervised learning models. One of the most celebrated methods in this context is the SAGA algorithm. Despite years of research on the topic, a general-purpose version of SAGA---one that would include arbitrary importance sampling and minibatching schemes---does not exist. We remedy this situation and propose a general and flexible variant of SAGA following the {\em arbitrary sampling} paradigm. We perform an iteration complexity analysis of the method, largely possible due to the construction of new stochastic Lyapunov functions. We establish linear convergence rates in the smooth and strongly convex regime, and under a quadratic functional growth condition (i.e., in a regime not assuming strong convexity). Our rates match those of the primal-dual method Quartz for which an arbitrary sampling analysis is available, which makes a significant step towards closing the gap in our understanding of complexity of primal and dual methods for finite sum problems.

* 27 pages, 8 Figures, 1 algorithm 

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Multi-turn Dialogue Response Generation in an Adversarial Learning Framework

Sep 19, 2018
Oluwatobi Olabiyi, Alan Salimov, Anish Khazane, Erik T. Mueller

We propose an adversarial learning approach to the generation of multi-turn dialogue responses. Our proposed framework, hredGAN, is based on conditional generative adversarial networks (GANs). The GAN's generator is a modified hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder network (HRED) and the discriminator is a word-level bidirectional RNN that shares context and word embedding with the generator. During inference, noise samples conditioned on the dialogue history are used to perturb the generator's latent space to generate several possible responses. The final response is the one ranked best by the discriminator. The hredGAN shows major advantages over existing methods: (1) it generalizes better than networks trained using only the log-likelihood criterion, and (2) it generates longer, more informative and more diverse responses with high utterance and topic relevance even with limited training data. This superiority is demonstrated on the Movie triples and Ubuntu dialogue datasets in terms of perplexity, BLEU, ROUGE and Distinct n-gram scores.


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A Dual Approach to Scalable Verification of Deep Networks

Aug 03, 2018
Krishnamurthy, Dvijotham, Robert Stanforth, Sven Gowal, Timothy Mann, Pushmeet Kohli

This paper addresses the problem of formally verifying desirable properties of neural networks, i.e., obtaining provable guarantees that neural networks satisfy specifications relating their inputs and outputs (robustness to bounded norm adversarial perturbations, for example). Most previous work on this topic was limited in its applicability by the size of the network, network architecture and the complexity of properties to be verified. In contrast, our framework applies to a general class of activation functions and specifications on neural network inputs and outputs. We formulate verification as an optimization problem (seeking to find the largest violation of the specification) and solve a Lagrangian relaxation of the optimization problem to obtain an upper bound on the worst case violation of the specification being verified. Our approach is anytime i.e. it can be stopped at any time and a valid bound on the maximum violation can be obtained. We develop specialized verification algorithms with provable tightness guarantees under special assumptions and demonstrate the practical significance of our general verification approach on a variety of verification tasks.


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Variational Option Discovery Algorithms

Jul 26, 2018
Joshua Achiam, Harrison Edwards, Dario Amodei, Pieter Abbeel

We explore methods for option discovery based on variational inference and make two algorithmic contributions. First: we highlight a tight connection between variational option discovery methods and variational autoencoders, and introduce Variational Autoencoding Learning of Options by Reinforcement (VALOR), a new method derived from the connection. In VALOR, the policy encodes contexts from a noise distribution into trajectories, and the decoder recovers the contexts from the complete trajectories. Second: we propose a curriculum learning approach where the number of contexts seen by the agent increases whenever the agent's performance is strong enough (as measured by the decoder) on the current set of contexts. We show that this simple trick stabilizes training for VALOR and prior variational option discovery methods, allowing a single agent to learn many more modes of behavior than it could with a fixed context distribution. Finally, we investigate other topics related to variational option discovery, including fundamental limitations of the general approach and the applicability of learned options to downstream tasks.


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A NoSQL Data-based Personalized Recommendation System for C2C e-Commerce

Jun 26, 2018
Khanh Dang, Khuong Vo, Josef Küng

With the considerable development of customer-to-customer (C2C) e-commerce in the recent years, there is a big demand for an effective recommendation system that suggests suitable websites for users to sell their items with some specified needs. Nonetheless, e-commerce recommendation systems are mostly designed for business-to-customer (B2C) websites, where the systems offer the consumers the products that they might like to buy. Almost none of the related research works focus on choosing selling sites for target items. In this paper, we introduce an approach that recommends the selling websites based upon the item's description, category, and desired selling price. This approach employs NoSQL data-based machine learning techniques for building and training topic models and classification models. The trained models can then be used to rank the websites dynamically with respect to the user needs. The experimental results with real-world datasets from Vietnam C2C websites will demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

* Accepted to DEXA 2017 

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Predicting the Next Best View for 3D Mesh Refinement

May 16, 2018
Luca Morreale, Andrea Romanoni, Matteo Matteucci

3D reconstruction is a core task in many applications such as robot navigation or sites inspections. Finding the best poses to capture part of the scene is one of the most challenging topic that goes under the name of Next Best View. Recently, many volumetric methods have been proposed; they choose the Next Best View by reasoning over a 3D voxelized space and by finding which pose minimizes the uncertainty decoded into the voxels. Such methods are effective, but they do not scale well since the underlaying representation requires a huge amount of memory. In this paper we propose a novel mesh-based approach which focuses on the worst reconstructed region of the environment mesh. We define a photo-consistent index to evaluate the 3D mesh accuracy, and an energy function over the worst regions of the mesh which takes into account the mutual parallax with respect to the previous cameras, the angle of incidence of the viewing ray to the surface and the visibility of the region. We test our approach over a well known dataset and achieve state-of-the-art results.

* 13 pages, 5 figures, to be published in IAS-15 

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On the Reduction of Biases in Big Data Sets for the Detection of Irregular Power Usage

Apr 03, 2018
Patrick Glauner, Radu State, Petko Valtchev, Diogo Duarte

In machine learning, a bias occurs whenever training sets are not representative for the test data, which results in unreliable models. The most common biases in data are arguably class imbalance and covariate shift. In this work, we aim to shed light on this topic in order to increase the overall attention to this issue in the field of machine learning. We propose a scalable novel framework for reducing multiple biases in high-dimensional data sets in order to train more reliable predictors. We apply our methodology to the detection of irregular power usage from real, noisy industrial data. In emerging markets, irregular power usage, and electricity theft in particular, may range up to 40% of the total electricity distributed. Biased data sets are of particular issue in this domain. We show that reducing these biases increases the accuracy of the trained predictors. Our models have the potential to generate significant economic value in a real world application, as they are being deployed in a commercial software for the detection of irregular power usage.

* Proceedings of the 13th International FLINS Conference on Data Science and Knowledge Engineering for Sensing Decision Support (FLINS 2018) 

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Multi-task, multi-label and multi-domain learning with residual convolutional networks for emotion recognition

Feb 19, 2018
Gerard Pons, David Masip

Automated emotion recognition in the wild from facial images remains a challenging problem. Although recent advances in Deep Learning have supposed a significant breakthrough in this topic, strong changes in pose, orientation and point of view severely harm current approaches. In addition, the acquisition of labeled datasets is costly, and current state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms cannot model all the aforementioned difficulties. In this paper, we propose to apply a multi-task learning loss function to share a common feature representation with other related tasks. Particularly we show that emotion recognition benefits from jointly learning a model with a detector of facial Action Units (collective muscle movements). The proposed loss function addresses the problem of learning multiple tasks with heterogeneously labeled data, improving previous multi-task approaches. We validate the proposal using two datasets acquired in non controlled environments, and an application to predict compound facial emotion expressions.

* Preprint submitted to IJCV 

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Deep Multi-view Learning to Rank

Jan 31, 2018
Guanqun Cao, Alexandros Iosifidis, Moncef Gabbouj, Vijay Raghavan, Raju Gottumukkala

We study the problem of learning to rank from multiple sources. Though multi-view learning and learning to rank have been studied extensively leading to a wide range of applications, multi-view learning to rank as a synergy of both topics has received little attention. The aim of the paper is to propose a composite ranking method while keeping a close correlation with the individual rankings simultaneously. We propose a multi-objective solution to ranking by capturing the information of the feature mapping from both within each view as well as across views using autoencoder-like networks. Moreover, a novel end-to-end solution is introduced to enhance the joint ranking with minimum view-specific ranking loss, so that we can achieve the maximum global view agreements within a single optimization process. The proposed method is validated on a wide variety of ranking problems, including university ranking, multi-view lingual text ranking and image data ranking, providing superior results.


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