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Avoiding Improper Treatment of Persons with Dementia by Care Robots

May 08, 2020
Martin Cooney, Sepideh Pashami, Eric Järpe, Awais Ashfaq

The phrase "most cruel and revolting crimes" has been used to describe some poor historical treatment of vulnerable impaired persons by precisely those who should have had the responsibility of protecting and helping them. We believe we might be poised to see history repeat itself, as increasingly human-like aware robots become capable of engaging in behavior which we would consider immoral in a human--either unknowingly or deliberately. In the current paper we focus in particular on exploring some potential dangers affecting persons with dementia (PWD), which could arise from insufficient software or external factors, and describe a proposed solution involving rich causal models and accountability measures: Specifically, the Consequences of Needs-driven Dementia-compromised Behaviour model (C-NDB) could be adapted to be used with conversation topic detection, causal networks and multi-criteria decision making, alongside reports, audits, and deterrents. Our aim is that the considerations raised could help inform the design of care robots intended to support well-being in PWD.

* ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Workshop on The Dark Side of Human-Robot Interaction: Ethical Considerations and Community Guidelines for the Field of HRI, Daegu, South Korea, March 11, 2019 
* 4 pages. Published. (Submitted: Jan. 22, 2019; Accepted: Jan. 30, 2019; Camera-ready submitted: Feb. 6, 2019.) 

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Self-Supervised and Controlled Multi-Document Opinion Summarization

May 01, 2020
Hady Elsahar, Maximin Coavoux, Matthias Gallé, Jos Rozen

We address the problem of unsupervised abstractive summarization of collections of user generated reviews with self-supervision and control. We propose a self-supervised setup that considers an individual document as a target summary for a set of similar documents. This setting makes training simpler than previous approaches by relying only on standard log-likelihood loss. We address the problem of hallucinations through the use of control codes, to steer the generation towards more coherent and relevant summaries.Finally, we extend the Transformer architecture to allow for multiple reviews as input. Our benchmarks on two datasets against graph-based and recent neural abstractive unsupervised models show that our proposed method generates summaries with a superior quality and relevance.This is confirmed in our human evaluation which focuses explicitly on the faithfulness of generated summaries We also provide an ablation study, which shows the importance of the control setup in controlling hallucinations and achieve high sentiment and topic alignment of the summaries with the input reviews.

* 18 pages including 5 pages appendix 

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AmbigQA: Answering Ambiguous Open-domain Questions

Apr 22, 2020
Sewon Min, Julian Michael, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Luke Zettlemoyer

Ambiguity is inherent to open-domain question answering; especially when exploring new topics, it can be difficult to ask questions that have a single, unambiguous answer. In this paper, we introduce AmbigQA, a new open-domain question answering task which involves predicting a set of question-answer pairs, where every plausible answer is paired with a disambiguated rewrite of the original question. To study this task, we construct AmbigNQ, a dataset covering 14,042 questions from NQ-open, an existing open-domain QA benchmark. We find that over half of the questions in NQ-open are ambiguous, exhibiting diverse types of ambiguity. We also present strong baseline models for AmbigQA which we show benefit from weakly supervised learning that incorporates NQ-open, strongly suggesting our new task and data will support significant future research effort. Our data is available at

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Interactions in information spread: quantification and interpretation using stochastic block models

Apr 09, 2020
Gaël Poux-Médard, Julien Velcin, Sabine Loudcher

In most real-world applications, it is seldom the case that a given observable evolves independently of its environment. In social networks, users' behavior results from the people they interact with, news in their feed, or trending topics. In natural language, the meaning of phrases emerges from the combination of words. In general medicine, a diagnosis is established on the basis of the interaction of symptoms. Here, we propose a new model, the Interactive Mixed Membership Stochastic Block Model (IMMSBM), which investigates the role of interactions between entities (hashtags, words, memes, etc.) and quantifies their importance within the aforementioned corpora. We find that interactions play an important role in those corpora. In inference tasks, taking them into account leads to average relative changes with respect to non-interactive models of up to 150\% in the probability of an outcome. Furthermore, their role greatly improves the predictive power of the model. Our findings suggest that neglecting interactions when modeling real-world phenomena might lead to incorrect conclusions being drawn.

* 17 pages, 3 figures, submitted to ECML-PKDD 2020 

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MCEN: Bridging Cross-Modal Gap between Cooking Recipes and Dish Images with Latent Variable Model

Apr 02, 2020
Han Fu, Rui Wu, Chenghao Liu, Jianling Sun

Nowadays, driven by the increasing concern on diet and health, food computing has attracted enormous attention from both industry and research community. One of the most popular research topics in this domain is Food Retrieval, due to its profound influence on health-oriented applications. In this paper, we focus on the task of cross-modal retrieval between food images and cooking recipes. We present Modality-Consistent Embedding Network (MCEN) that learns modality-invariant representations by projecting images and texts to the same embedding space. To capture the latent alignments between modalities, we incorporate stochastic latent variables to explicitly exploit the interactions between textual and visual features. Importantly, our method learns the cross-modal alignments during training but computes embeddings of different modalities independently at inference time for the sake of efficiency. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed MCEN outperforms all existing approaches on the benchmark Recipe1M dataset and requires less computational cost.

* Accepted to CVPR 2020 

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A Survey on Deep Hashing Methods

Mar 04, 2020
Xiao Luo, Chong Chen, Huasong Zhong, Hao Zhang, Minghua Deng, Jianqiang Huang, Xiansheng Hua

Nearest neighbor search is to find the data points in the database such that the distances from them to the query are the smallest, which is a fundamental problem in various domains, such as computer vision, recommendation systems and machine learning. Hashing is one of the most widely used method for its computational and storage efficiency. With the development of deep learning, deep hashing methods show more advantages than traditional methods. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the deep hashing algorithms. Based on the loss function, we categorize deep supervised hashing methods according to the manners of preserving the similarities into: pairwise similarity preserving, multiwise similarity preserving, implicit similarity preserving, as well as quantization. In addition, we also introduce some other topics such as deep unsupervised hashing and multi-modal deep hashing methods. Meanwhile, we also present some commonly used public datasets and the scheme to measure the performance of deep hashing algorithms. Finally, we discussed some potential research directions in the conclusion.

* 23 pages, 0 figure. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1606.00185, arXiv:1804.08275 by other authors 

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Generalized Gumbel-Softmax Gradient Estimator for Various Discrete Random Variables

Mar 04, 2020
Weonyoung Joo, Dongjun Kim, Seungjae Shin, Il-Chul Moon

Estimating the gradients of stochastic nodes is one of the crucial research questions in the deep generative modeling community. This estimation problem becomes further complex when we regard the stochastic nodes to be discrete because pathwise derivative techniques can not be applied. Hence, the gradient estimation requires the score function methods or the continuous relaxation of the discrete random variables. This paper proposes a general version of the Gumbel-Softmax estimator with continuous relaxation, and this estimator is able to relax the discreteness of probability distributions, including broader types than the current practice. In detail, we utilize the truncation of discrete random variables and the Gumbel-Softmax trick with a linear transformation for the relaxation. The proposed approach enables the relaxed discrete random variable to be reparameterized and to backpropagate through a large scale stochastic neural network. Our experiments consist of synthetic data analyses, which show the efficacy of our methods, and topic model analyses, which demonstrates the value of the proposed estimation in practices.

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Questioning the AI: Informing Design Practices for Explainable AI User Experiences

Feb 08, 2020
Q. Vera Liao, Daniel Gruen, Sarah Miller

A surge of interest in explainable AI (XAI) has led to a vast collection of algorithmic work on the topic. While many recognize the necessity to incorporate explainability features in AI systems, how to address real-world user needs for understanding AI remains an open question. By interviewing 20 UX and design practitioners working on various AI products, we seek to identify gaps between the current XAI algorithmic work and practices to create explainable AI products. To do so, we develop an algorithm-informed XAI question bank in which user needs for explainability are represented as prototypical questions users might ask about the AI, and use it as a study probe. Our work contributes insights into the design space of XAI, informs efforts to support design practices in this space, and identifies opportunities for future XAI work. We also provide an extended XAI question bank and discuss how it can be used for creating user-centered XAI.

* Working draft. To appear in the ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2020) 

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