To provide higher data rates, as well as better coverage, cost efficiency, security, adaptability, and scalability, the 5G and beyond 5G networks are developed with various artificial intelligence techniques. In this two-part paper, we investigate the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and in particular machine learning (ML) to the study of wireless propagation channels. It firstly provides a comprehensive overview of ML for channel characterization and ML-based antenna-channel optimization in this first part, and then it gives a state-of-the-art literature review of channel scenario identification and channel modeling in Part II. Fundamental results and key concepts of ML for communication networks are presented, and widely used ML methods for channel data processing, propagation channel estimation, and characterization are analyzed and compared. A discussion of challenges and future research directions for ML-enabled next generation networks of the topics covered in this part rounds off the paper.
Understanding the generalization behaviour of deep neural networks is a topic of recent interest that has driven the production of many studies, notably the development and evaluation of generalization "explainability" measures that quantify model generalization ability. Generalization measures have also proven useful in the development of powerful layer-wise model tuning and optimization algorithms, though these algorithms require specific kinds of generalization measures which can probe individual layers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the neglected subtopic of probeable generalization measures; to establish firm ground for further investigations, and to inspire and guide the development of novel model tuning and optimization algorithms. We evaluate and compare measures, demonstrating effectiveness and robustness across model variations, dataset complexities, training hyperparameters, and training stages. We also introduce a new dataset of trained models and performance metrics, GenProb, for testing generalization measures, model tuning algorithms and optimization algorithms.
Autonomous aerial delivery vehicles have gained significant interest in the last decade. This has been enabled by technological advancements in aerial manipulators and novel grippers with enhanced force to weight ratios. Furthermore, improved control schemes and vehicle dynamics are better able to model the payload and improved perception algorithms to detect key features within the unmanned aerial vehicle's (UAV) environment. In this survey, a systematic review of the technological advancements and open research problems of autonomous aerial delivery vehicles is conducted. First, various types of manipulators and grippers are discussed in detail, along with dynamic modelling and control methods. Then, landing on static and dynamic platforms is discussed. Subsequently, risks such as weather conditions, state estimation and collision avoidance to ensure safe transit is considered. Finally, delivery UAV routing is investigated which categorises the topic into two areas: drone operations and drone-truck collaborative operations.
Neural network robustness has become a central topic in machine learning in recent years. Most training algorithms that improve the model's robustness to adversarial and common corruptions also introduce a large computational overhead, requiring as many as ten times the number of forward and backward passes in order to converge. To combat this inefficiency, we propose BulletTrain $-$ a boundary example mining technique to drastically reduce the computational cost of robust training. Our key observation is that only a small fraction of examples are beneficial for improving robustness. BulletTrain dynamically predicts these important examples and optimizes robust training algorithms to focus on the important examples. We apply our technique to several existing robust training algorithms and achieve a 2.1$\times$ speed-up for TRADES and MART on CIFAR-10 and a 1.7$\times$ speed-up for AugMix on CIFAR-10-C and CIFAR-100-C without any reduction in clean and robust accuracy.
Homophony's widespread presence in natural languages is a controversial topic. Recent theories of language optimality have tried to justify its prevalence, despite its negative effects on cognitive processing time; e.g., Piantadosi et al. (2012) argued homophony enables the reuse of efficient wordforms and is thus beneficial for languages. This hypothesis has recently been challenged by Trott and Bergen (2020), who posit that good wordforms are more often homophonous simply because they are more phonotactically probable. In this paper, we join in on the debate. We first propose a new information-theoretic quantification of a language's homophony: the sample R\'enyi entropy. Then, we use this quantification to revisit Trott and Bergen's claims. While their point is theoretically sound, a specific methodological issue in their experiments raises doubts about their results. After addressing this issue, we find no clear pressure either towards or against homophony -- a much more nuanced result than either Piantadosi et al.'s or Trott and Bergen's findings.
Ethics in AI becomes a global topic of interest for both policymakers and academic researchers. In the last few years, various research organizations, lawyers, think tankers and regulatory bodies get involved in developing AI ethics guidelines and principles. However, there is still debate about the implications of these principles. We conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) study to investigate the agreement on the significance of AI principles and identify the challenging factors that could negatively impact the adoption of AI ethics principles. The results reveal that the global convergence set consists of 22 ethical principles and 15 challenges. Transparency, privacy, accountability and fairness are identified as the most common AI ethics principles. Similarly, lack of ethical knowledge and vague principles are reported as the significant challenges for considering ethics in AI. The findings of this study are the preliminary inputs for proposing a maturity model that assess the ethical capabilities of AI systems and provide best practices for further improvements.
In recent years, many design automation methods have been developed to routinely create approximate implementations of circuits and programs that show excellent trade-offs between the quality of output and required resources. This paper deals with evolutionary approximation as one of the popular approximation methods. The paper provides the first survey of evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based approaches applied in the context of approximate computing. The survey reveals that EAs are primarily applied as multi-objective optimizers. We propose to divide these approaches into two main classes: (i) parameter optimization in which the EA optimizes a vector of system parameters, and (ii) synthesis and optimization in which EA is responsible for determining the architecture and parameters of the resulting system. The evolutionary approximation has been applied at all levels of design abstraction and in many different applications. The neural architecture search enabling the automated hardware-aware design of approximate deep neural networks was identified as a newly emerging topic in this area.
Electronic health records (EHRs), digital collections of patient healthcare events and observations, are ubiquitous in medicine and critical to healthcare delivery, operations, and research. Despite this central role, EHRs are notoriously difficult to process automatically. Well over half of the information stored within EHRs is in the form of unstructured text (e.g. provider notes, operation reports) and remains largely untapped for secondary use. Recently, however, newer neural network and deep learning approaches to Natural Language Processing (NLP) have made considerable advances, outperforming traditional statistical and rule-based systems on a variety of tasks. In this survey paper, we summarize current neural NLP methods for EHR applications. We focus on a broad scope of tasks, namely, classification and prediction, word embeddings, extraction, generation, and other topics such as question answering, phenotyping, knowledge graphs, medical dialogue, multilinguality, interpretability, etc.
The area of computer vision is one of the most discussed topics amongst many scholars, and stereo matching is its most important sub fields. After the parallax map is transformed into a depth map, it can be applied to many intelligent fields. In this paper, a stereo matching algorithm based on visual sensitive information is proposed by using standard images from Middlebury dataset. Aiming at the limitation of traditional stereo matching algorithms regarding the cost window, a cost aggregation algorithm based on the dynamic window is proposed, and the disparity image is optimized by using left and right consistency detection to further reduce the error matching rate. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively enhance the stereo matching effect of the image providing significant improvement in accuracy as compared with the classical census algorithm. The proposed model code, dataset, and experimental results are available at https://github.com/WangHewei16/Stereo-Matching.
Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by effective deep learning techniques developed in the field of computer vision. In this work, we focus on the topic of camera calibration and on its current limitations for the scientific community. More precisely, we tackle the absence of a large-scale calibration dataset and of a public calibration network trained on such a dataset. Specifically, we distill a powerful commercial calibration tool in a recent neural network architecture on the large-scale SoccerNet dataset, composed of untrimmed broadcast videos of 500 soccer games. We further release our distilled network, and leverage it to provide 3 ways of representing the calibration results along with player localization. Finally, we exploit those representations within the current best architecture for the action spotting task of SoccerNet-v2, and achieve new state-of-the-art performances.