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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Restoring and Mining the Records of the Joseon Dynasty via Neural Language Modeling and Machine Translation

Apr 14, 2021
Kyeongpil Kang, Kyohoon Jin, Soyoung Yang, Sujin Jang, Jaegul Choo, Youngbin Kim

Understanding voluminous historical records provides clues on the past in various aspects, such as social and political issues and even natural science facts. However, it is generally difficult to fully utilize the historical records, since most of the documents are not written in a modern language and part of the contents are damaged over time. As a result, restoring the damaged or unrecognizable parts as well as translating the records into modern languages are crucial tasks. In response, we present a multi-task learning approach to restore and translate historical documents based on a self-attention mechanism, specifically utilizing two Korean historical records, ones of the most voluminous historical records in the world. Experimental results show that our approach significantly improves the accuracy of the translation task than baselines without multi-task learning. In addition, we present an in-depth exploratory analysis on our translated results via topic modeling, uncovering several significant historical events.

* Accepted to NAACL 2021 

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Dual MINE-based Neural Secure Communications under Gaussian Wiretap Channel

Feb 25, 2021
Jingjing Li, Zhuo Sun, Lei Zhang, Hongyu Zhu

Recently, some researches are devoted to the topic of end-to-end learning a physical layer secure communication system based on autoencoder under Gaussian wiretap channel. However, in those works, the reliability and security of the encoder model were learned through necessary decoding outputs of not only legitimate receiver but also the eavesdropper. In fact, the assumption of known eavesdropper's decoder or its output is not practical. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a dual mutual information neural estimation (MINE) based neural secure communications model. The security constraints of this method is constructed only with the input and output signal samples of the legal and eavesdropper channels and benefit that training the encoder is completely independent of the decoder. Moreover, since the design of secure coding does not rely on the eavesdropper's decoding results, the security performance would not be affected by the eavesdropper's decoding means. Numerical results show that the performance of our model is guaranteed whether the eavesdropper learns the decoder himself or uses the legal decoder.

* 6 pages, 6 figures, ICC 2021 

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NeurT-FDR: Controlling FDR by Incorporating Feature Hierarchy

Jan 24, 2021
Lin Qiu, Nils Murrugarra-Llerena, Vítor Silva, Lin Lin, Vernon M. Chinchilli

Controlling false discovery rate (FDR) while leveraging the side information of multiple hypothesis testing is an emerging research topic in modern data science. Existing methods rely on the test-level covariates while ignoring possible hierarchy among the covariates. This strategy may not be optimal for complex large-scale problems, where hierarchical information often exists among those test-level covariates. We propose NeurT-FDR which boosts statistical power and controls FDR for multiple hypothesis testing while leveraging the hierarchy among test-level covariates. Our method parametrizes the test-level covariates as a neural network and adjusts the feature hierarchy through a regression framework, which enables flexible handling of high-dimensional features as well as efficient end-to-end optimization. We show that NeurT-FDR has strong FDR guarantees and makes substantially more discoveries in synthetic and real datasets compared to competitive baselines.


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Panarchy: ripples of a boundary concept

Dec 28, 2020
Juan Rocha, Linda Luvuno, Jesse Rieb, Erin Crockett, Katja Malmborg, Michael Schoon, Garry Peterson

How do social-ecological systems change over time? In 2002 Holling and colleagues proposed the concept of Panarchy, which presented social-ecological systems as an interacting set of adaptive cycles, each of which is produced by the dynamic tensions between novelty and efficiency at multiple scales. Initially introduced as a conceptual framework and set of metaphors, panarchy has gained the attention of scholars across many disciplines and its ideas continue to inspire further conceptual developments. Almost twenty years after this concept was introduced we review how it has been used, tested, extended and revised. We do this by combining qualitative methods and machine learning. Document analysis was used to code panarchy features that are commonly used in the scientific literature (N = 42), a qualitative analysis that was complemented with topic modeling of 2177 documents. We find that the adaptive cycle is the feature of panarchy that has attracted the most attention. Challenges remain in empirically grounding the metaphor, but recent theoretical and empirical work offers some avenues for future research.

* 11 pages, 5 figures 

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SenSeNet: Neural Keyphrase Generation with Document Structure

Dec 12, 2020
Yichao Luo, Zhengyan Li, Bingning Wang, Xiaoyu Xing, Qi Zhang, Xuanjing Huang

Keyphrase Generation (KG) is the task of generating central topics from a given document or literary work, which captures the crucial information necessary to understand the content. Documents such as scientific literature contain rich meta-sentence information, which represents the logical-semantic structure of the documents. However, previous approaches ignore the constraints of document logical structure, and hence they mistakenly generate keyphrases from unimportant sentences. To address this problem, we propose a new method called Sentence Selective Network (SenSeNet) to incorporate the meta-sentence inductive bias into KG. In SenSeNet, we use a straight-through estimator for end-to-end training and incorporate weak supervision in the training of the sentence selection module. Experimental results show that SenSeNet can consistently improve the performance of major KG models based on seq2seq framework, which demonstrate the effectiveness of capturing structural information and distinguishing the significance of sentences in KG task.


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A Weighted Solution to SVM Actionability and Interpretability

Dec 06, 2020
Samuel Marc Denton, Ansaf Salleb-Aouissi

Research in machine learning has successfully developed algorithms to build accurate classification models. However, in many real-world applications, such as healthcare, customer satisfaction, and environment protection, we want to be able to use the models to decide what actions to take. We investigate the concept of actionability in the context of Support Vector Machines. Actionability is as important as interpretability or explainability of machine learning models, an ongoing and important research topic. Actionability is the task that gives us ways to act upon machine learning models and their predictions. This paper finds a solution to the question of actionability on both linear and non-linear SVM models. Additionally, we introduce a way to account for weighted actions that allow for more change in certain features than others. We propose a gradient descent solution on the linear, RBF, and polynomial kernels, and we test the effectiveness of our models on both synthetic and real datasets. We are also able to explore the model's interpretability through the lens of actionability.

* 20 pages; work in progress; 17 figures; 3 tables 

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Multi-source Data Mining for e-Learning

Sep 17, 2020
Julie Bu Daher, Armelle Brun, Anne Boyer

Data mining is the task of discovering interesting, unexpected or valuable structures in large datasets and transforming them into an understandable structure for further use . Different approaches in the domain of data mining have been proposed, among which pattern mining is the most important one. Pattern mining mining involves extracting interesting frequent patterns from data. Pattern mining has grown to be a topic of high interest where it is used for different purposes, for example, recommendations. Some of the most common challenges in this domain include reducing the complexity of the process and avoiding the redundancy within the patterns. So far, pattern mining has mainly focused on the mining of a single data source. However, with the increase in the amount of data, in terms of volume, diversity of sources and nature of data, mining multi-source and heterogeneous data has become an emerging challenge in this domain. This challenge is the main focus of our work where we propose to mine multi-source data in order to extract interesting frequent patterns.

* 7th International Symposium "From Data to Models and Back (DataMod)" 2018 Jun 25 

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SHACL Satisfiability and Containment (Extended Paper)

Aug 31, 2020
Paolo Pareti, George Konstantinidis, Fabio Mogavero, Timothy J. Norman

The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) is a recent W3C recommendation language for validating RDF data. Specifically, SHACL documents are collections of constraints that enforce particular shapes on an RDF graph. Previous work on the topic has provided theoretical and practical results for the validation problem, but did not consider the standard decision problems of satisfiability and containment, which are crucial for verifying the feasibility of the constraints and important for design and optimization purposes. In this paper, we undertake a thorough study of different features of non-recursive SHACL by providing a translation to a new first-order language, called SCL, that precisely captures the semantics of SHACL w.r.t. satisfiability and containment. We study the interaction of SHACL features in this logic and provide the detailed map of decidability and complexity results of the aforementioned decision problems for different SHACL sublanguages. Notably, we prove that both problems are undecidable for the full language, but we present decidable combinations of interesting features.


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SEED: Semantics Enhanced Encoder-Decoder Framework for Scene Text Recognition

May 22, 2020
Zhi Qiao, Yu Zhou, Dongbao Yang, Yucan Zhou, Weiping Wang

Scene text recognition is a hot research topic in computer vision. Recently, many recognition methods based on the encoder-decoder framework have been proposed, and they can handle scene texts of perspective distortion and curve shape. Nevertheless, they still face lots of challenges like image blur, uneven illumination, and incomplete characters. We argue that most encoder-decoder methods are based on local visual features without explicit global semantic information. In this work, we propose a semantics enhanced encoder-decoder framework to robustly recognize low-quality scene texts. The semantic information is used both in the encoder module for supervision and in the decoder module for initializing. In particular, the state-of-the art ASTER method is integrated into the proposed framework as an exemplar. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework is more robust for low-quality text images, and achieves state-of-the-art results on several benchmark datasets.

* CVPR 2020 

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