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"Topic": models, code, and papers

(Almost) All of Entity Resolution

Aug 10, 2020
Olivier Binette, Rebecca C. Steorts

Whether the goal is to estimate the number of people that live in a congressional district, to estimate the number of individuals that have died in an armed conflict, or to disambiguate individual authors using bibliographic data, all these applications have a common theme - integrating information from multiple sources. Before such questions can be answered, databases must be cleaned and integrated in a systematic and accurate way, commonly known as record linkage, de-duplication, or entity resolution. In this article, we review motivational applications and seminal papers that have led to the growth of this area. Specifically, we review the foundational work that began in the 1940's and 50's that have led to modern probabilistic record linkage. We review clustering approaches to entity resolution, semi- and fully supervised methods, and canonicalization, which are being used throughout industry and academia in applications such as human rights, official statistics, medicine, citation networks, among others. Finally, we discuss current research topics of practical importance.

* 53 pages, includes supplementary materials 

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Fairness in machine learning: against false positive rate equality as a measure of fairness

Jul 06, 2020
Robert Long

As machine learning informs increasingly consequential decisions, different metrics have been proposed for measuring algorithmic bias or unfairness. Two popular fairness measures are calibration and equality of false positive rate. Each measure seems intuitively important, but notably, it is usually impossible to satisfy both measures. For this reason, a large literature in machine learning speaks of a fairness tradeoff between these two measures. This framing assumes that both measures are, in fact, capturing something important. To date, philosophers have not examined this crucial assumption, and examined to what extent each measure actually tracks a normatively important property. This makes this inevitable statistical conflict, between calibration and false positive rate equality, an important topic for ethics. In this paper, I give an ethical framework for thinking about these measures and argue that, contrary to initial appearances, false positive rate equality does not track anything about fairness, and thus sets an incoherent standard for evaluating the fairness of algorithms.


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Image-on-Scalar Regression via Deep Neural Networks

Jun 17, 2020
Daiwei Zhang, Lexin Li, Chandra Sripada, Jian Kang

A research topic of central interest in neuroimaging analysis is to study the associations between the massive imaging data and a set of covariates. This problem is challenging, due to the ultrahigh dimensionality, the high and heterogeneous level of noise, and the limited sample size of the imaging data. To address those challenges, we develop a novel image-on-scalar regression model, where the spatially-varying coefficients and the individual spatial effects are all constructed through deep neural networks (DNN). Compared with the existing solutions, our method is much more flexible in capturing the complex patterns among the brain signals, of which the noise level and the spatial smoothness appear to be heterogeneous across different brain regions. We develop a hybrid stochastic gradient descent estimation algorithm, and derive the asymptotic properties when the number of voxels grows much faster than the sample size. We show that the new method outperforms the existing ones through both extensive simulations and two neuroimaging data examples.

* 8 pages, 5 figures 

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Least Squares Optimization: from Theory to Practice

Feb 25, 2020
Giorgio Grisetti, Tiziano Guadagnino, Irvin Aloise, Mirco Colosi, Bartolomeo Della Corte, Dominik Schlegel

Nowadays, Non-Linear Least-Squares embodies the foundation of many Robotics and Computer Vision systems. The research community deeply investigated this topic in the last years, and this resulted in the development of several open-source solvers to approach constantly increasing classes of problems. In this work, we propose a unified methodology to design and develop efficient Least-Squares Optimization algorithms, focusing on the structures and patterns of each specific domain. Furthermore, we present a novel open-source optimization system, that addresses transparently problems with a different structure and designed to be easy to extend. The system is written in modern C++ and can run efficiently on embedded systems. Our package is available at https://gitlab.com/srrg-software/srrg2_solver. We validated our approach by conducting comparative experiments on several problems using standard datasets. The results show that our system achieves state-of-the-art performances in all tested scenarios.

* 28 pages, 15 figures, source at https://gitlab.com/srrg-software/srrg2_solver 

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Why X rather than Y? Explaining Neural Model' Predictions by Generating Intervention Counterfactual Samples

Nov 05, 2019
Thai Le, Suhang Wang, Dongwon Lee

Even though the topic of explainable AI/ML is very popular in text and computer vision domain, most of the previous literatures are not suitable for explaining black-box models' predictions on general data mining datasets. This is because these datasets are usually in high-dimensional vectored features format that are not as friendly and comprehensible as texts and images to the end users. In this paper, we combine the best of both worlds: "explanations by intervention" from causality and "explanations are contrastive" from philosophy and social science domain to explain neural models' predictions for tabular datasets. Specifically, given a model's prediction as label X, we propose a novel idea to intervene and generate minimally modified contrastive sample to be classified as Y, that then results in a simple natural text giving answer to the question "Why X rather than Y?". We carry out experiments with several datasets of different scales and compare our approach with other baselines on three different areas: fidelity, reasonableness and explainability.


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Opinion aspect extraction in Dutch childrens diary entries

Oct 21, 2019
Hella Haanstra, Maaike H. T. de Boer

Aspect extraction can be used in dialogue systems to understand the topic of opinionated text. Expressing an empathetic reaction to an opinion can strengthen the bond between a human and, for example, a robot. The aim of this study is three-fold: 1. create a new annotated dataset for both aspect extraction and opinion words for Dutch childrens language, 2. acquire aspect extraction results for this task and 3. improve current results for aspect extraction in Dutch reviews. This was done by training a deep learning Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) model, originally developed for an English review dataset, on Dutch restaurant review data to classify both opinion words and their respective aspects. We obtained state-of-the-art performance on the Dutch restaurant review dataset. Additionally, we acquired aspect extraction results for the Dutch childrens dataset. Since the model was trained on standardised language, these results are quite promising.


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Avaya Conversational Intelligence: A Real-Time System for Spoken Language Understanding in Human-Human Call Center Conversations

Sep 02, 2019
Jan Mizgajski, Adrian Szymczak, Robert G艂owski, Piotr Szyma艅ski, Piotr 呕elasko, 艁ukasz Augustyniak, Miko艂aj Morzy, Yishay Carmiel, Jeff Hodson, 艁ukasz W贸jciak, Daniel Smoczyk, Adam Wr贸bel, Bartosz Borowik, Adam Artajew, Marcin Baran, Cezary Kwiatkowski, Marzena 呕y艂a-Hoppe

Avaya Conversational Intelligence(ACI) is an end-to-end, cloud-based solution for real-time Spoken Language Understanding for call centers. It combines large vocabulary, real-time speech recognition, transcript refinement, and entity and intent recognition in order to convert live audio into a rich, actionable stream of structured events. These events can be further leveraged with a business rules engine, thus serving as a foundation for real-time supervision and assistance applications. After the ingestion, calls are enriched with unsupervised keyword extraction, abstractive summarization, and business-defined attributes, enabling offline use cases, such as business intelligence, topic mining, full-text search, quality assurance, and agent training. ACI comes with a pretrained, configurable library of hundreds of intents and a robust intent training environment that allows for efficient, cost-effective creation and customization of customer-specific intents.

* Accepted for Interspeech 2019 

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Fast Haar Transforms for Graph Neural Networks

Jul 23, 2019
Ming Li, Zheng Ma, Yu Guang Wang, Xiaosheng Zhuang

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have become a topic of intense research recently due to their powerful capability in high-dimensional classification and regression tasks for graph-structured data. However, as GNNs typically define the graph convolution by the orthonormal basis for the graph Laplacian, they suffer from high computational cost when the graph size is large. This paper introduces the Haar basis, a sparse and localized orthonormal system for graph, constructed from a coarse-grained chain on the graph. The graph convolution under Haar basis --- the Haar convolution can be defined accordingly for GNNs. The sparsity and locality of the Haar basis allow Fast Haar Transforms (FHTs) on graph, by which a fast evaluation of Haar convolution between the graph signals and the filters can be achieved. We conduct preliminary experiments on GNNs equipped with Haar convolution, which can obtain state-of-the-art results for a variety of geometric deep learning tasks.

* 11 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables 

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Haar Transforms for Graph Neural Networks

Jul 10, 2019
Ming Li, Zheng Ma, Yu Guang Wang, Xiaosheng Zhuang

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have become a topic of intense research recently due to their powerful capability in high-dimensional classification and regression tasks for graph-structured data. However, as GNNs typically define the graph convolution by the orthonormal basis for the graph Laplacian, they suffer from high computational cost when the graph size is large. This paper introduces the Haar basis, a sparse and localized orthonormal system for graph, constructed from a coarse-grained chain on the graph. The graph convolution under Haar basis --- the Haar convolution can be defined accordingly for GNNs. The sparsity and locality of the Haar basis allow Fast Haar Transforms (FHTs) on graph, by which a fast evaluation of Haar convolution between the graph signals and the filters can be achieved. We conduct preliminary experiments on GNNs equipped with Haar convolution, which can obtain state-of-the-art results for a variety of geometric deep learning tasks.

* 11 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables 

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Predicting the Type and Target of Offensive Posts in Social Media

Apr 16, 2019
Marcos Zampieri, Shervin Malmasi, Preslav Nakov, Sara Rosenthal, Noura Farra, Ritesh Kumar

As offensive content has become pervasive in social media, there has been much research in identifying potentially offensive messages. However, previous work on this topic did not consider the problem as a whole, but rather focused on detecting very specific types of offensive content, e.g., hate speech, cyberbulling, or cyber-aggression. In contrast, here we target several different kinds of offensive content. In particular, we model the task hierarchically, identifying the type and the target of offensive messages in social media. For this purpose, we complied the Offensive Language Identification Dataset (OLID), a new dataset with tweets annotated for offensive content using a fine-grained three-layer annotation scheme, which we make publicly available. We discuss the main similarities and differences between OLID and pre-existing datasets for hate speech identification, aggression detection, and similar tasks. We further experiment with and we compare the performance of different machine learning models on OLID.

* Proceedings of the 2019 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL) 

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