In this paper, we consider ensemble classifiers, that is, machine learning based classifiers that utilize a combination of scoring functions. We provide a framework for categorizing such classifiers, and we outline several ensemble techniques, discussing how each fits into our framework. From this general introduction, we then pivot to the topic of ensemble learning within the context of malware analysis. We present a brief survey of some of the ensemble techniques that have been used in malware (and related) research. We conclude with an extensive set of experiments, where we apply ensemble techniques to a large and challenging malware dataset. While many of these ensemble techniques have appeared in the malware literature, previously there has been no way to directly compare results such as these, as different datasets and different measures of success are typically used. Our common framework and empirical results are an effort to bring some sense of order to the chaos that is evident in the evolving field of ensemble learning -- both within the narrow confines of the malware analysis problem, and in the larger realm of machine learning in general.
This paper introduces Multiscale Anisotropic Harmonic Filters (MAHFs) aimed at extracting signal variations over non-Euclidean domains, namely 2D-Manifolds and their discrete representations, such as meshes and 3D Point Clouds as well as graphs. The topic of pattern analysis is central in image processing and, considered the growing interest in new domains for information representation, the extension of analogous practices on volumetric data is highly demanded. To accomplish this purpose, we define MAHFs as the product of two components, respectively related to a suitable smoothing function, namely the heat kernel derived from the heat diffusion equations, and to local directional information. We analyse the effectiveness of our approach in multi-scale filtering and variation extraction. Finally, we present an application to the surface normal field and to a luminance signal textured to a mesh, aiming to spot, in a separate fashion, relevant curvature changes (support variations) and signal variations.
Interpretation of machine learning models has become one of the most important topics of research due to the necessity of maintaining control and avoid bias in these algorithms. Since many machine learning algorithms are published every day, there is a need for novel model-agnostic interpretation approaches that could be used to interpret a great variety of algorithms. One particularly useful way to interpret machine learning models is to feed different input data to understand the changes in the prediction. Using such an approach, practitioners can define relations among patterns of data and a model's decision. In this work, we propose a model-agnostic interpretation approach that uses visualization of feature perturbations induced by the particle swarm optimization algorithm. We validate our approach both qualitatively and quantitatively on publicly available datasets, showing the capability to enhance the interpretation of different classifiers while yielding very stable results if compared with the state of the art algorithms.
We participate in the DSTC9 Interactive Dialogue Evaluation Track (Gunasekara et al. 2020) sub-task 1 (Knowledge Grounded Dialogue) and sub-task 2 (Interactive Dialogue). In sub-task 1, we employ a pre-trained language model to generate topic-related responses and propose a response ensemble method for response selection. In sub-task2, we propose a novel Dialogue Planning Model (DPM) to capture conversation flow in the interaction with humans. We also design an integrated open-domain dialogue system containing pre-process, dialogue model, scoring model, and post-process, which can generate fluent, coherent, consistent, and humanlike responses. We tie 1st on human ratings and also get the highest Meteor, and Bert-score in sub-task 1, and rank 3rd on interactive human evaluation in sub-task 2.
Fine-tuning is the de facto way to leverage large pretrained language models to perform downstream tasks. However, it modifies all the language model parameters and therefore necessitates storing a full copy for each task. In this paper, we propose prefix-tuning, a lightweight alternative to fine-tuning for natural language generation tasks, which keeps language model parameters frozen, but optimizes a small continuous task-specific vector (called the prefix). Prefix-tuning draws inspiration from prompting, allowing subsequent tokens to attend to this prefix as if it were "virtual tokens". We apply prefix-tuning to GPT-2 for table-to-text generation and to BART for summarization. We find that by learning only 0.1\% of the parameters, prefix-tuning obtains comparable performance in the full data setting, outperforms fine-tuning in low-data settings, and extrapolates better to examples with topics unseen during training.
In this work, we study the problem of word-level confidence calibration for scene-text recognition (STR). Although the topic of confidence calibration has been an active research area for the last several decades, the case of structured and sequence prediction calibration has been scarcely explored. We analyze several recent STR methods and show that they are consistently overconfident. We then focus on the calibration of STR models on the word rather than the character level. In particular, we demonstrate that for attention based decoders, calibration of individual character predictions increases word-level calibration error compared to an uncalibrated model. In addition, we apply existing calibration methodologies as well as new sequence-based extensions to numerous STR models, demonstrating reduced calibration error by up to a factor of nearly 7. Finally, we show consistently improved accuracy results by applying our proposed sequence calibration method as a preprocessing step to beam-search.
This paper proposes a novel Ontology-based and user-focused Automatic Text Summarization (OATS) system, in the setting where the goal is to automatically generate text summarization from unstructured text by extracting sentences containing the information that aligns to the user's focus. OATS consists of two modules: ontology-based topic identification and user-focused text summarization; it first utilizes an ontology-based approach to identify relevant documents to user's interest, and then takes advantage of the answers extracted from a question answering model using questions specified from users for the generation of text summarization. To support the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, we used COVID-19 risk factors as an example to demonstrate the proposed OATS system with the aim of helping the medical community accurately identify relevant scientific literature and efficiently review the information that addresses risk factors related to COVID-19.
We present Chirpy Cardinal, an open-domain dialogue agent, as a research platform for the 2019 Alexa Prize competition. Building an open-domain socialbot that talks to real people is challenging - such a system must meet multiple user expectations such as broad world knowledge, conversational style, and emotional connection. Our socialbot engages users on their terms - prioritizing their interests, feelings and autonomy. As a result, our socialbot provides a responsive, personalized user experience, capable of talking knowledgeably about a wide variety of topics, as well as chatting empathetically about ordinary life. Neural generation plays a key role in achieving these goals, providing the backbone for our conversational and emotional tone. At the end of the competition, Chirpy Cardinal progressed to the finals with an average rating of 3.6/5.0, a median conversation duration of 2 minutes 16 seconds, and a 90th percentile duration of over 12 minutes.
Behavior Trees (BTs) were invented as a tool to enable modular AI in computer games, but have received an increasing amount of attention in the robotics community in the last decade. With rising demands on agent AI complexity, game programmers found that the Finite State Machines (FSM) that they used scaled poorly and were difficult to extend, adapt and reuse. In BTs, the state transition logic is not dispersed across the individual states, but organized in a hierarchical tree structure, with the states as leaves. This has a significant effect on modularity, which in turn simplifies both synthesis and analysis by humans and algorithms alike. These advantages are needed not only in game AI design, but also in robotics, as is evident from the research being done. In this paper we present a comprehensive survey of the topic of BTs in Artificial Intelligence and Robotic applications. The existing literature is described and categorized based on methods, application areas and contributions, and the paper is concluded with a list of open research challenges.