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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Replicated Siamese LSTM in Ticketing System for Similarity Learning and Retrieval in Asymmetric Texts

Jul 08, 2018
Pankaj Gupta, Bernt Andrassy, Hinrich Sch眉tze

The goal of our industrial ticketing system is to retrieve a relevant solution for an input query, by matching with historical tickets stored in knowledge base. A query is comprised of subject and description, while a historical ticket consists of subject, description and solution. To retrieve a relevant solution, we use textual similarity paradigm to learn similarity in the query and historical tickets. The task is challenging due to significant term mismatch in the query and ticket pairs of asymmetric lengths, where subject is a short text but description and solution are multi-sentence texts. We present a novel Replicated Siamese LSTM model to learn similarity in asymmetric text pairs, that gives 22% and 7% gain ([email protected]) for retrieval task, respectively over unsupervised and supervised baselines. We also show that the topic and distributed semantic features for short and long texts improved both similarity learning and retrieval.

* In the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2018) workshop on Semantic Deep Learning (SemDeep-3) 

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Road Extraction by Deep Residual U-Net

Nov 29, 2017
Zhengxin Zhang, Qingjie Liu, Yunhong Wang

Road extraction from aerial images has been a hot research topic in the field of remote sensing image analysis. In this letter, a semantic segmentation neural network which combines the strengths of residual learning and U-Net is proposed for road area extraction. The network is built with residual units and has similar architecture to that of U-Net. The benefits of this model is two-fold: first, residual units ease training of deep networks. Second, the rich skip connections within the network could facilitate information propagation, allowing us to design networks with fewer parameters however better performance. We test our network on a public road dataset and compare it with U-Net and other two state of the art deep learning based road extraction methods. The proposed approach outperforms all the comparing methods, which demonstrates its superiority over recently developed state of the arts.

* Submitted to IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 

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Parameter Sharing Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient for Cooperative Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning

Oct 03, 2017
Xiangxiang Chu, Hangjun Ye

Deep reinforcement learning for multi-agent cooperation and competition has been a hot topic recently. This paper focuses on cooperative multi-agent problem based on actor-critic methods under local observations settings. Multi agent deep deterministic policy gradient obtained state of art results for some multi-agent games, whereas, it cannot scale well with growing amount of agents. In order to boost scalability, we propose a parameter sharing deterministic policy gradient method with three variants based on neural networks, including actor-critic sharing, actor sharing and actor sharing with partially shared critic. Benchmarks from rllab show that the proposed method has advantages in learning speed and memory efficiency, well scales with growing amount of agents, and moreover, it can make full use of reward sharing and exchangeability if possible.

* 12 pages, 6 figures 

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Deep Automated Multi-task Learning

Sep 19, 2017
Davis Liang, Yan Shu

Multi-task learning (MTL) has recently contributed to learning better representations in service of various NLP tasks. MTL aims at improving the performance of a primary task, by jointly training on a secondary task. This paper introduces automated tasks, which exploit the sequential nature of the input data, as secondary tasks in an MTL model. We explore next word prediction, next character prediction, and missing word completion as potential automated tasks. Our results show that training on a primary task in parallel with a secondary automated task improves both the convergence speed and accuracy for the primary task. We suggest two methods for augmenting an existing network with automated tasks and establish better performance in topic prediction, sentiment analysis, and hashtag recommendation. Finally, we show that the MTL models can perform well on datasets that are small and colloquial by nature.

* IJCNLP 2017 

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When Kernel Methods meet Feature Learning: Log-Covariance Network for Action Recognition from Skeletal Data

Aug 03, 2017
Jacopo Cavazza, Pietro Morerio, Vittorio Murino

Human action recognition from skeletal data is a hot research topic and important in many open domain applications of computer vision, thanks to recently introduced 3D sensors. In the literature, naive methods simply transfer off-the-shelf techniques from video to the skeletal representation. However, the current state-of-the-art is contended between to different paradigms: kernel-based methods and feature learning with (recurrent) neural networks. Both approaches show strong performances, yet they exhibit heavy, but complementary, drawbacks. Motivated by this fact, our work aims at combining together the best of the two paradigms, by proposing an approach where a shallow network is fed with a covariance representation. Our intuition is that, as long as the dynamics is effectively modeled, there is no need for the classification network to be deep nor recurrent in order to score favorably. We validate this hypothesis in a broad experimental analysis over 6 publicly available datasets.

* 2017 IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) Workshops 

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Automatic Understanding of Image and Video Advertisements

Jul 10, 2017
Zaeem Hussain, Mingda Zhang, Xiaozhong Zhang, Keren Ye, Christopher Thomas, Zuha Agha, Nathan Ong, Adriana Kovashka

There is more to images than their objective physical content: for example, advertisements are created to persuade a viewer to take a certain action. We propose the novel problem of automatic advertisement understanding. To enable research on this problem, we create two datasets: an image dataset of 64,832 image ads, and a video dataset of 3,477 ads. Our data contains rich annotations encompassing the topic and sentiment of the ads, questions and answers describing what actions the viewer is prompted to take and the reasoning that the ad presents to persuade the viewer ("What should I do according to this ad, and why should I do it?"), and symbolic references ads make (e.g. a dove symbolizes peace). We also analyze the most common persuasive strategies ads use, and the capabilities that computer vision systems should have to understand these strategies. We present baseline classification results for several prediction tasks, including automatically answering questions about the messages of the ads.

* To appear in CVPR 2017; data available on 

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Unsupervised Diverse Colorization via Generative Adversarial Networks

Jul 01, 2017
Yun Cao, Zhiming Zhou, Weinan Zhang, Yong Yu

Colorization of grayscale images has been a hot topic in computer vision. Previous research mainly focuses on producing a colored image to match the original one. However, since many colors share the same gray value, an input grayscale image could be diversely colored while maintaining its reality. In this paper, we design a novel solution for unsupervised diverse colorization. Specifically, we leverage conditional generative adversarial networks to model the distribution of real-world item colors, in which we develop a fully convolutional generator with multi-layer noise to enhance diversity, with multi-layer condition concatenation to maintain reality, and with stride 1 to keep spatial information. With such a novel network architecture, the model yields highly competitive performance on the open LSUN bedroom dataset. The Turing test of 80 humans further indicates our generated color schemes are highly convincible.

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Image-Grounded Conversations: Multimodal Context for Natural Question and Response Generation

Apr 20, 2017
Nasrin Mostafazadeh, Chris Brockett, Bill Dolan, Michel Galley, Jianfeng Gao, Georgios P. Spithourakis, Lucy Vanderwende

The popularity of image sharing on social media and the engagement it creates between users reflects the important role that visual context plays in everyday conversations. We present a novel task, Image-Grounded Conversations (IGC), in which natural-sounding conversations are generated about a shared image. To benchmark progress, we introduce a new multiple-reference dataset of crowd-sourced, event-centric conversations on images. IGC falls on the continuum between chit-chat and goal-directed conversation models, where visual grounding constrains the topic of conversation to event-driven utterances. Experiments with models trained on social media data show that the combination of visual and textual context enhances the quality of generated conversational turns. In human evaluation, the gap between human performance and that of both neural and retrieval architectures suggests that multi-modal IGC presents an interesting challenge for dialogue research.

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Dependent Multinomial Models Made Easy: Stick Breaking with the P贸lya-Gamma Augmentation

Jun 18, 2015
Scott W. Linderman, Matthew J. Johnson, Ryan P. Adams

Many practical modeling problems involve discrete data that are best represented as draws from multinomial or categorical distributions. For example, nucleotides in a DNA sequence, children's names in a given state and year, and text documents are all commonly modeled with multinomial distributions. In all of these cases, we expect some form of dependency between the draws: the nucleotide at one position in the DNA strand may depend on the preceding nucleotides, children's names are highly correlated from year to year, and topics in text may be correlated and dynamic. These dependencies are not naturally captured by the typical Dirichlet-multinomial formulation. Here, we leverage a logistic stick-breaking representation and recent innovations in P\'olya-gamma augmentation to reformulate the multinomial distribution in terms of latent variables with jointly Gaussian likelihoods, enabling us to take advantage of a host of Bayesian inference techniques for Gaussian models with minimal overhead.

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Computational Approach to Anaphora Resolution in Spanish Dialogues

Jun 03, 2011
P. Martinez-Barco, M. Palomar

This paper presents an algorithm for identifying noun-phrase antecedents of pronouns and adjectival anaphors in Spanish dialogues. We believe that anaphora resolution requires numerous sources of information in order to find the correct antecedent of the anaphor. These sources can be of different kinds, e.g., linguistic information, discourse/dialogue structure information, or topic information. For this reason, our algorithm uses various different kinds of information (hybrid information). The algorithm is based on linguistic constraints and preferences and uses an anaphoric accessibility space within which the algorithm finds the noun phrase. We present some experiments related to this algorithm and this space using a corpus of 204 dialogues. The algorithm is implemented in Prolog. According to this study, 95.9% of antecedents were located in the proposed space, a precision of 81.3% was obtained for pronominal anaphora resolution, and 81.5% for adjectival anaphora.

* Journal Of Artificial Intelligence Research, Volume 15, pages 263-287, 2001 

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