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"Topic": models, code, and papers

A unified view on differential privacy and robustness to adversarial examples

Jun 19, 2019
Rafael Pinot, Florian Yger, Cédric Gouy-Pailler, Jamal Atif

This short note highlights some links between two lines of research within the emerging topic of trustworthy machine learning: differential privacy and robustness to adversarial examples. By abstracting the definitions of both notions, we show that they build upon the same theoretical ground and hence results obtained so far in one domain can be transferred to the other. More precisely, our analysis is based on two key elements: probabilistic mappings (also called randomized algorithms in the differential privacy community), and the Renyi divergence which subsumes a large family of divergences. We first generalize the definition of robustness against adversarial examples to encompass probabilistic mappings. Then we observe that Renyi-differential privacy (a generalization of differential privacy recently proposed in~\cite{Mironov2017RenyiDP}) and our definition of robustness share several similarities. We finally discuss how can both communities benefit from this connection to transfer technical tools from one research field to the other.


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Improving Neural Conversational Models with Entropy-Based Data Filtering

Jun 04, 2019
Richard Csaky, Patrik Purgai, Gabor Recski

Current neural network-based conversational models lack diversity and generate boring responses to open-ended utterances. Priors such as persona, emotion, or topic provide additional information to dialog models to aid response generation, but annotating a dataset with priors is expensive and such annotations are rarely available. While previous methods for improving the quality of open-domain response generation focused on either the underlying model or the training objective, we present a method of filtering dialog datasets by removing generic utterances from training data using a simple entropy-based approach that does not require human supervision. We conduct extensive experiments with different variations of our method, and compare dialog models across 17 evaluation metrics to show that training on datasets filtered this way results in better conversational quality as chatbots learn to output more diverse responses.

* 20 pages. To be presented at ACL 2019. Camera-ready 

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An interdisciplinary survey of network similarity methods

May 15, 2019
Emily Evans, Marissa Graham

Comparative graph and network analysis play an important role in both systems biology and pattern recognition, but existing surveys on the topic have historically ignored or underserved one or the other of these fields. We present an integrative introduction to the key objectives and methods of graph and network comparison in each field, with the intent of remaining accessible to relative novices in order to mitigate the barrier to interdisciplinary idea crossover. To guide our investigation, and to quantitatively justify our assertions about what the key objectives and methods of each field are, we have constructed a citation network containing 5,793 vertices from the full reference lists of over two hundred relevant papers, which we collected by searching Google Scholar for ten different network comparison-related search terms. We investigate its basic statistics and community structure, and frame our presentation around the papers found to have high importance according to five different standard centrality measures.


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An approach to image denoising using manifold approximation without clean images

Apr 28, 2019
Rohit Jena

Image restoration has been an extensively researched topic in numerous fields. With the advent of deep learning, a lot of the current algorithms were replaced by algorithms that are more flexible and robust. Deep networks have demonstrated impressive performance in a variety of tasks like blind denoising, image enhancement, deblurring, super-resolution, inpainting, among others. Most of these learning-based algorithms use a large amount of clean data during the training process. However, in certain applications in medical image processing, one may not have access to a large amount of clean data. In this paper, we propose a method for denoising that attempts to learn the denoising process by pushing the noisy data close to the clean data manifold, using only noisy images during training. Furthermore, we use perceptual loss terms and an iterative refinement step to further refine the clean images without losing important features.


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Towards Pedestrian Detection Using RetinaNet in ECCV 2018 Wider Pedestrian Detection Challenge

Feb 04, 2019
Md Ashraful Alam Milton

The main essence of this paper is to investigate the performance of RetinaNet based object detectors on pedestrian detection. Pedestrian detection is an important research topic as it provides a baseline for general object detection and has a great number of practical applications like autonomous car, robotics and Security camera. Though extensive research has made huge progress in pedestrian detection, there are still many issues and open for more research and improvement. Recent deep learning based methods have shown state-of-the-art performance in computer vision tasks such as image classification, object detection, and segmentation. Wider pedestrian detection challenge aims at finding improve solutions for pedestrian detection problem. In this paper, We propose a pedestrian detection system based on RetinaNet. Our solution has scored 0.4061 mAP. The code is available at https://github.com/miltonbd/ECCV_2018_pedestrian_detection_challenege.

* ECCV Wider pedestrian detection challenege submission 

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Pair-wise Exchangeable Feature Extraction for Arbitrary Style Transfer

Nov 26, 2018
Zhijie Wu, Chunjin Song, Yang Zhou, Minglun Gong, Hui Huang

Style transfer has been an important topic in both computer vision and graphics. Gatys et al. first prove that deep features extracted by the pre-trained VGG network represent both content and style features of an image and hence, style transfer can be achieved through optimization in feature space. Huang et al. then show that real-time arbitrary style transfer can be done by simply aligning the mean and variance of each feature channel. In this paper, however, we argue that only aligning the global statistics of deep features cannot always guarantee a good style transfer. Instead, we propose to jointly analyze the input image pair and extract common/exchangeable style features between the two. Besides, a new fusion mode is developed for combining content and style information in feature space. Qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate the advantages of our approach.


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HANDS18: Methods, Techniques and Applications for Hand Observation

Oct 25, 2018
Iason Oikonomidis, Guillermo Garcia-Hernando, Angela Yao, Antonis Argyros, Vincent Lepetit, Tae-Kyun Kim

This report outlines the proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Observing and Understanding Hands in Action (HANDS 2018). The fourth instantiation of this workshop attracted significant interest from both academia and the industry. The program of the workshop included regular papers that are published as the workshop's proceedings, extended abstracts, invited posters, and invited talks. Topics of the submitted works and invited talks and posters included novel methods for hand pose estimation from RGB, depth, or skeletal data, datasets for special cases and real-world applications, and techniques for hand motion re-targeting and hand gesture recognition. The invited speakers are leaders in their respective areas of specialization, coming from both industry and academia. The main conclusions that can be drawn are the turn of the community towards RGB data and the maturation of some methods and techniques, which in turn has led to increasing interest for real-world applications.

* 11 pages, 1 figure, Discussion of the HANDS 2018 workshop held in conjunction with ECCV 2018 

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Small nonlinearities in activation functions create bad local minima in neural networks

Sep 28, 2018
Chulhee Yun, Suvrit Sra, Ali Jadbabaie

We investigate the loss surface of neural networks. We prove that even for one-hidden-layer networks with "slightest" nonlinearity, the empirical risks have spurious local minima in most cases. Our results thus indicate that in general "no spurious local minima" is a property limited to deep linear networks, and insights obtained from linear networks are not robust. Specifically, for ReLU(-like) networks we constructively prove that for almost all (in contrast to previous results) practical datasets there exist infinitely many local minima. We also present a counterexample for more general activations (sigmoid, tanh, arctan, ReLU, etc.), for which there exists a bad local minimum. Our results make the least restrictive assumptions relative to existing results on local optimality in neural networks. We complete our discussion by presenting a comprehensive characterization of global optimality for deep linear networks, which unifies other results on this topic.

* 36 pages 

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Towards Automated Factchecking: Developing an Annotation Schema and Benchmark for Consistent Automated Claim Detection

Sep 21, 2018
Lev Konstantinovskiy, Oliver Price, Mevan Babakar, Arkaitz Zubiaga

In an effort to assist factcheckers in the process of factchecking, we tackle the claim detection task, one of the necessary stages prior to determining the veracity of a claim. It consists of identifying the set of sentences, out of a long text, deemed capable of being factchecked. This paper is a collaborative work between Full Fact, an independent factchecking charity, and academic partners. Leveraging the expertise of professional factcheckers, we develop an annotation schema and a benchmark for automated claim detection that is more consistent across time, topics and annotators than previous approaches. Our annotation schema has been used to crowdsource the annotation of a dataset with sentences from UK political TV shows. We introduce an approach based on universal sentence representations to perform the classification, achieving an F1 score of 0.83, with over 5% relative improvement over the state-of-the-art methods ClaimBuster and ClaimRank. The system was deployed in production and received positive user feedback.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2018: Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (The First Workshop on Fact Extraction and Verification). (Non-archival) 

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