Temporal action segmentation is a topic of increasing interest, however, annotating each frame in a video is cumbersome and costly. Weakly supervised approaches therefore aim at learning temporal action segmentation from videos that are only weakly labeled. In this work, we assume that for each training video only the list of actions is given that occur in the video, but not when, how often, and in which order they occur. In order to address this task, we propose an approach that can be trained end-to-end on such data. The approach divides the video into smaller temporal regions and predicts for each region the action label and its length. In addition, the network estimates the action labels for each frame. By measuring how consistent the frame-wise predictions are with respect to the temporal regions and the annotated action labels, the network learns to divide a video into class-consistent regions. We evaluate our approach on three datasets where the approach achieves state-of-the-art results.
Cross-manifold clustering is a hard topic and many traditional clustering methods fail because of the cross-manifold structures. In this paper, we propose a Multiple Flat Projections Clustering (MFPC) to deal with cross-manifold clustering problems. In our MFPC, the given samples are projected into multiple subspaces to discover the global structures of the implicit manifolds. Thus, the cross-manifold clusters are distinguished from the various projections. Further, our MFPC is extended to nonlinear manifold clustering via kernel tricks to deal with more complex cross-manifold clustering. A series of non-convex matrix optimization problems in MFPC are solved by a proposed recursive algorithm. The synthetic tests show that our MFPC works on the cross-manifold structures well. Moreover, experimental results on the benchmark datasets show the excellent performance of our MFPC compared with some state-of-the-art clustering methods.
Public debate forums provide a common platform for exchanging opinions on a topic of interest. While recent studies in natural language processing (NLP) have provided empirical evidence that the language of the debaters and their patterns of interaction play a key role in changing the mind of a reader, research in psychology has shown that prior beliefs can affect our interpretation of an argument and could therefore constitute a competing alternative explanation for resistance to changing one's stance. To study the actual effect of language use vs. prior beliefs on persuasion, we provide a new dataset and propose a controlled setting that takes into consideration two reader level factors: political and religious ideology. We find that prior beliefs affected by these reader level factors play a more important role than language use effects and argue that it is important to account for them in NLP studies of persuasion.
Statistical methods applied to social media posts shed light on the dynamics of online dialogue. For example, users' wording choices predict their persuasiveness and users adopt the language patterns of other dialogue participants. In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of reply tones in debates on linguistic and sentiment changes in subsequent responses. The challenge for this estimation is that a reply's tone and subsequent responses are confounded by the users' ideologies on the debate topic and their emotions. To overcome this challenge, we learn representations of ideology using generative models of text. We study debates from 4Forums and compare annotated tones of replying such as emotional versus factual, or reasonable versus attacking. We show that our latent confounder representation reduces bias in ATE estimation. Our results suggest that factual and asserting tones affect dialogue and provide a methodology for estimating causal effects from text.
While idiosyncrasies of the Chinese classifier system have been a richly studied topic among linguists (Adams and Conklin, 1973; Erbaugh, 1986; Lakoff, 1986), not much work has been done to quantify them with statistical methods. In this paper, we introduce an information-theoretic approach to measuring idiosyncrasy; we examine how much the uncertainty in Mandarin Chinese classifiers can be reduced by knowing semantic information about the nouns that the classifiers modify. Using the empirical distribution of classifiers from the parsed Chinese Gigaword corpus (Graff et al., 2005), we compute the mutual information (in bits) between the distribution over classifiers and distributions over other linguistic quantities. We investigate whether semantic classes of nouns and adjectives differ in how much they reduce uncertainty in classifier choice, and find that it is not fully idiosyncratic; while there are no obvious trends for the majority of semantic classes, shape nouns reduce uncertainty in classifier choice the most.
We present Temporal Aggregation Network (TAN) which decomposes 3D convolutions into spatial and temporal aggregation blocks. By stacking spatial and temporal convolutions repeatedly, TAN forms a deep hierarchical representation for capturing spatio-temporal information in videos. Since we do not apply 3D convolutions in each layer but only apply temporal aggregation blocks once after each spatial downsampling layer in the network, we significantly reduce the model complexity. The use of dilated convolutions at different resolutions of the network helps in aggregating multi-scale spatio-temporal information efficiently. Experiments show that our model is well suited for dense multi-label action recognition, which is a challenging sub-topic of action recognition that requires predicting multiple action labels in each frame. We outperform state-of-the-art methods by 5% and 3% on the Charades and Multi-THUMOS dataset respectively.
We first propose a new task named Dialogue Description (Dial2Desc). Unlike other existing dialogue summarization tasks such as meeting summarization, we do not maintain the natural flow of a conversation but describe an object or an action of what people are talking about. The Dial2Desc system takes a dialogue text as input, then outputs a concise description of the object or the action involved in this conversation. After reading this short description, one can quickly extract the main topic of a conversation and build a clear picture in his mind, without reading or listening to the whole conversation. Based on the existing dialogue dataset, we build a new dataset, which has more than one hundred thousand dialogue-description pairs. As a step forward, we demonstrate that one can get more accurate and descriptive results using a new neural attentive model that exploits the interaction between utterances from different speakers, compared with other baselines.
Sequence to sequence (SEQ2SEQ) models often lack diversity in their generated translations. This can be attributed to the limitation of SEQ2SEQ models in capturing lexical and syntactic variations in a parallel corpus resulting from different styles, genres, topics, or ambiguity of the translation process. In this paper, we develop a novel sequence to sequence mixture (S2SMIX) model that improves both translation diversity and quality by adopting a committee of specialized translation models rather than a single translation model. Each mixture component selects its own training dataset via optimization of the marginal loglikelihood, which leads to a soft clustering of the parallel corpus. Experiments on four language pairs demonstrate the superiority of our mixture model compared to a SEQ2SEQ baseline with standard or diversity-boosted beam search. Our mixture model uses negligible additional parameters and incurs no extra computation cost during decoding.
Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.
Despite its ubiquity in our daily lives, AI is only just starting to make advances in what may arguably have the largest societal impact thus far, the nascent field of autonomous driving. In this work we discuss this important topic and address one of crucial aspects of the emerging area, the problem of predicting future state of autonomous vehicle's surrounding necessary for safe and efficient operations. We introduce a deep learning-based approach that takes into account current world state and produces rasterized representations of each actor's vicinity. The raster images are then used by deep convolutional models to infer future movement of actors while accounting for inherent uncertainty of the prediction task. Extensive experiments on real-world data strongly suggest benefits of the proposed approach. Moreover, following successful tests the system was deployed to a fleet of autonomous vehicles.