Geometrically parametrized Partial Differential Equations are nowadays widely used in many different fields as, for example, shape optimization processes or patient specific surgery studies. The focus of this work is on some advances for this topic, capable of increasing the accuracy with respect to previous approaches while relying on a high cost-benefit ratio performance. The main scope of this paper is the introduction of a new technique mixing up a classical Galerkin-projection approach together with a data-driven method to obtain a versatile and accurate algorithm for the resolution of geometrically parametrized incompressible turbulent Navier-Stokes problems. The effectiveness of this procedure is demonstrated on two different test cases: a classical academic back step problem and a shape deformation Ahmed body application. The results show into details the properties of the architecture we developed while exposing possible future perspectives for this work.
Reproducing the capabilities of the human sense of touch in machines is an important step in enabling robot manipulation to have the ease of human dexterity. A combination of robotic technologies will be needed, including soft robotics, biomimetics and the high-resolution sensing offered by optical tactile sensors. This combination is considered here as a SoftBOT (Soft Biomimetic Optical Tactile) sensor. This article reviews the BRL TacTip as a prototypical example of such a sensor. Topics include the relation between artificial skin morphology and the transduction principles of human touch, the nature and benefits of tactile shear sensing, 3D printing for fabrication and integration into robot hands, the application of AI to tactile perception and control, and the recent step-change in capabilities due to deep learning. This review consolidates those advances from the past decade to indicate a path for robots to reach human-like dexterity.
Artificial intelligence is an emerging topic and will soon be able to perform decisions better than humans. In more complex and creative contexts such as innovation, however, the question remains whether machines are superior to humans. Machines fail in two kinds of situations: processing and interpreting soft information (information that cannot be quantified) and making predictions in unknowable risk situations of extreme uncertainty. In such situations, the machine does not have representative information for a certain outcome. Thereby, humans are still the gold standard for assessing soft signals and make use of intuition. To predict the success of startups, we, thus, combine the complementary capabilities of humans and machines in a Hybrid Intelligence method. To reach our aim, we follow a design science research approach to develop a Hybrid Intelligence method that combines the strength of both machine and collective intelligence to demonstrate its utility for predictions under extreme uncertainty.
Introduced more than a half century ago, Granger causality has become a popular tool for analyzing time series data in many application domains, from economics and finance to genomics and neuroscience. Despite this popularity, the validity of this notion for inferring causal relationships among time series has remained the topic of continuous debate. Moreover, while the original definition was general, limitations in computational tools have primarily limited the applications of Granger causality to simple bivariate vector auto-regressive processes or pairwise relationships among a set of variables. Starting with a review of early developments and debates, this paper discusses recent advances that address various shortcomings of the earlier approaches, from models for high-dimensional time series to more recent developments that account for nonlinear and non-Gaussian observations and allow for sub-sampled and mixed frequency time series.
As an emerging and challenging problem in the computer vision community, weakly supervised object localization and detection plays an important role for developing new generation computer vision systems and has received significant attention in the past decade. As methods have been proposed, a comprehensive survey of these topics is of great importance. In this work, we review (1) classic models, (2) approaches with feature representations from off-the-shelf deep networks, (3) approaches solely based on deep learning, and (4) publicly available datasets and standard evaluation metrics that are widely used in this field. We also discuss the key challenges in this field, development history of this field, advantages/disadvantages of the methods in each category, the relationships between methods in different categories, applications of the weakly supervised object localization and detection methods, and potential future directions to further promote the development of this research field.
We propose a deep learning approach to predicting audio event onsets in electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded from users as they listen to music. We use a publicly available dataset containing ten contemporary songs and concurrently recorded EEG. We generate a sequence of onset labels for the songs in our dataset and trained neural networks (a fully connected network (FCN) and a recurrent neural network (RNN)) to parse one second windows of input EEG to predict one second windows of onsets in the audio. We compare our RNN network to both the standard spectral-flux based novelty function and the FCN. We find that our RNN was able to produce results that reflected its ability to generalize better than the other methods. Since there are no pre-existing works on this topic, the numbers presented in this paper may serve as useful benchmarks for future approaches to this research problem.
Training fair machine learning models, aiming for their interpretability and solving the problem of domain shift has gained a lot of interest in the last years. There is a vast amount of work addressing these topics, mostly in separation. In this work we show that they can be seen as a common framework of learning invariant representations. The representations should allow to predict the target while at the same time being invariant to sensitive attributes which split the dataset into subgroups. Our approach is based on the simple observation that it is impossible for any learning algorithm to differentiate samples if they have the same feature representation. This is formulated as an additional loss (regularizer) enforcing a common feature representation across subgroups. We apply it to learn fair models and interpret the influence of the sensitive attribute. Furthermore it can be used for domain adaptation, transferring knowledge and learning effectively from very few examples. In all applications it is essential not only to learn to predict the target, but also to learn what to ignore.
It has been long debated that eXplainable AI (XAI) is an important topic, but it lacks rigorous definition and fair metrics. In this paper, we briefly summarize the status quo of the metrics, along with an exhaustive experimental study based on them, including faithfulness, localization, false-positives, sensitivity check, and stability. With the experimental results, we conclude that among all the methods we compare, no single explanation method dominates others in all metrics. Nonetheless, Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) and Randomly Input Sampling for Explanation (RISE) perform fairly well in most of the metrics. Utilizing a set of filtered metrics, we further present a case study to diagnose the classification bases for models. While providing a comprehensive experimental study of metrics, we also examine measuring factors that are missed in current metrics and hope this valuable work could serve as a guide for future research.
We build a sentence-level political discourse classifier using existing human expert annotated corpora of political manifestos from the Manifestos Project (Volkens et al., 2020a) and applying them to a corpus ofCOVID-19Press Briefings (Chatsiou, 2020). We use manually annotated political manifestos as training data to train a local topic ConvolutionalNeural Network (CNN) classifier; then apply it to the COVID-19PressBriefings Corpus to automatically classify sentences in the test corpus.We report on a series of experiments with CNN trained on top of pre-trained embeddings for sentence-level classification tasks. We show thatCNN combined with transformers like BERT outperforms CNN combined with other embeddings (Word2Vec, Glove, ELMo) and that it is possible to use a pre-trained classifier to conduct automatic classification on different political texts without additional training.