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Blue Sky Ideas in Artificial Intelligence Education from the EAAI 2017 New and Future AI Educator Program

Feb 01, 2017
Eric Eaton, Sven Koenig, Claudia Schulz, Francesco Maurelli, John Lee, Joshua Eckroth, Mark Crowley, Richard G. Freedman, Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera, Tiago Machado, Tom Williams

The 7th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence (EAAI'17, co-chaired by Sven Koenig and Eric Eaton) launched the EAAI New and Future AI Educator Program to support the training of early-career university faculty, secondary school faculty, and future educators (PhD candidates or postdocs who intend a career in academia). As part of the program, awardees were asked to address one of the following "blue sky" questions: * How could/should Artificial Intelligence (AI) courses incorporate ethics into the curriculum? * How could we teach AI topics at an early undergraduate or a secondary school level? * AI has the potential for broad impact to numerous disciplines. How could we make AI education more interdisciplinary, specifically to benefit non-engineering fields? This paper is a collection of their responses, intended to help motivate discussion around these issues in AI education.

* Working paper in the 7th Symposium on Educational Advances in Artificial Intelligence (EAAI-17) 

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Can we unify monocular detectors for autonomous driving by using the pixel-wise semantic segmentation of CNNs?

Jul 04, 2016
Eduardo Romera, Luis M. Bergasa, Roberto Arroyo

Autonomous driving is a challenging topic that requires complex solutions in perception tasks such as recognition of road, lanes, traffic signs or lights, vehicles and pedestrians. Through years of research, computer vision has grown capable of tackling these tasks with monocular detectors that can provide remarkable detection rates with relatively low processing times. However, the recent appearance of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) has revolutionized the computer vision field and has made possible approaches to perform full pixel-wise semantic segmentation in times close to real time (even on hardware that can be carried on a vehicle). In this paper, we propose to use full image segmentation as an approach to simplify and unify most of the detection tasks required in the perception module of an autonomous vehicle, analyzing major concerns such as computation time and detection performance.

* Extended abstract presented in IV16-WS Deepdriving (http://iv2016.berkeleyvision.org/

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Summarizing Decisions in Spoken Meetings

Jun 25, 2016
Lu Wang, Claire Cardie

This paper addresses the problem of summarizing decisions in spoken meetings: our goal is to produce a concise {\it decision abstract} for each meeting decision. We explore and compare token-level and dialogue act-level automatic summarization methods using both unsupervised and supervised learning frameworks. In the supervised summarization setting, and given true clusterings of decision-related utterances, we find that token-level summaries that employ discourse context can approach an upper bound for decision abstracts derived directly from dialogue acts. In the unsupervised summarization setting,we find that summaries based on unsupervised partitioning of decision-related utterances perform comparably to those based on partitions generated using supervised techniques (0.22 ROUGE-F1 using LDA-based topic models vs. 0.23 using SVMs).

* ACL Workshop on Automatic Summarization for Different Genres, Media, and Languages, 2011 

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Gauss quadrature for matrix inverse forms with applications

May 28, 2016
Chengtao Li, Suvrit Sra, Stefanie Jegelka

We present a framework for accelerating a spectrum of machine learning algorithms that require computation of bilinear inverse forms $u^\top A^{-1}u$, where $A$ is a positive definite matrix and $u$ a given vector. Our framework is built on Gauss-type quadrature and easily scales to large, sparse matrices. Further, it allows retrospective computation of lower and upper bounds on $u^\top A^{-1}u$, which in turn accelerates several algorithms. We prove that these bounds tighten iteratively and converge at a linear (geometric) rate. To our knowledge, ours is the first work to demonstrate these key properties of Gauss-type quadrature, which is a classical and deeply studied topic. We illustrate empirical consequences of our results by using quadrature to accelerate machine learning tasks involving determinantal point processes and submodular optimization, and observe tremendous speedups in several instances.


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On Sparse variational methods and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between stochastic processes

Dec 04, 2015
Alexander G. de G. Matthews, James Hensman, Richard E. Turner, Zoubin Ghahramani

The variational framework for learning inducing variables (Titsias, 2009a) has had a large impact on the Gaussian process literature. The framework may be interpreted as minimizing a rigorously defined Kullback-Leibler divergence between the approximating and posterior processes. To our knowledge this connection has thus far gone unremarked in the literature. In this paper we give a substantial generalization of the literature on this topic. We give a new proof of the result for infinite index sets which allows inducing points that are not data points and likelihoods that depend on all function values. We then discuss augmented index sets and show that, contrary to previous works, marginal consistency of augmentation is not enough to guarantee consistency of variational inference with the original model. We then characterize an extra condition where such a guarantee is obtainable. Finally we show how our framework sheds light on interdomain sparse approximations and sparse approximations for Cox processes.

* 9 pages. No figures 

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An Empirical Study of Stochastic Variational Algorithms for the Beta Bernoulli Process

Jun 26, 2015
Amar Shah, David A. Knowles, Zoubin Ghahramani

Stochastic variational inference (SVI) is emerging as the most promising candidate for scaling inference in Bayesian probabilistic models to large datasets. However, the performance of these methods has been assessed primarily in the context of Bayesian topic models, particularly latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA). Deriving several new algorithms, and using synthetic, image and genomic datasets, we investigate whether the understanding gleaned from LDA applies in the setting of sparse latent factor models, specifically beta process factor analysis (BPFA). We demonstrate that the big picture is consistent: using Gibbs sampling within SVI to maintain certain posterior dependencies is extremely effective. However, we find that different posterior dependencies are important in BPFA relative to LDA. Particularly, approximations able to model intra-local variable dependence perform best.

* ICML, 12 pages. Volume 37: Proceedings of The 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning, 2015 

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On the Easiest and Hardest Fitness Functions

Feb 12, 2015
Jun He, Tianshi Chen, Xin Yao

The hardness of fitness functions is an important research topic in the field of evolutionary computation. In theory, the study can help understanding the ability of evolutionary algorithms. In practice, the study may provide a guideline to the design of benchmarks. The aim of this paper is to answer the following research questions: Given a fitness function class, which functions are the easiest with respect to an evolutionary algorithm? Which are the hardest? How are these functions constructed? The paper provides theoretical answers to these questions. The easiest and hardest fitness functions are constructed for an elitist (1+1) evolutionary algorithm to maximise a class of fitness functions with the same optima. It is demonstrated that the unimodal functions are the easiest and deceptive functions are the hardest in terms of the time-fitness landscape. The paper also reveals that the easiest fitness function to one algorithm may become the hardest to another algorithm, and vice versa.

* IEEE Transactions on evolutionary computation 19.2 (2015): 295-305 

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Low-rank data modeling via the Minimum Description Length principle

Sep 28, 2011
Ignacio Ramírez, Guillermo Sapiro

Robust low-rank matrix estimation is a topic of increasing interest, with promising applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to data mining and recommender systems. Recent theoretical results establish the ability of such data models to recover the true underlying low-rank matrix when a large portion of the measured matrix is either missing or arbitrarily corrupted. However, if low rank is not a hypothesis about the true nature of the data, but a device for extracting regularity from it, no current guidelines exist for choosing the rank of the estimated matrix. In this work we address this problem by means of the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle -- a well established information-theoretic approach to statistical inference -- as a guideline for selecting a model for the data at hand. We demonstrate the practical usefulness of our formal approach with results for complex background extraction in video sequences.


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Classification Constrained Dimensionality Reduction

Feb 21, 2008
Raviv Raich, Jose A. Costa, Steven B. Damelin, Alfred O. Hero III

Dimensionality reduction is a topic of recent interest. In this paper, we present the classification constrained dimensionality reduction (CCDR) algorithm to account for label information. The algorithm can account for multiple classes as well as the semi-supervised setting. We present an out-of-sample expressions for both labeled and unlabeled data. For unlabeled data, we introduce a method of embedding a new point as preprocessing to a classifier. For labeled data, we introduce a method that improves the embedding during the training phase using the out-of-sample extension. We investigate classification performance using the CCDR algorithm on hyper-spectral satellite imagery data. We demonstrate the performance gain for both local and global classifiers and demonstrate a 10% improvement of the $k$-nearest neighbors algorithm performance. We present a connection between intrinsic dimension estimation and the optimal embedding dimension obtained using the CCDR algorithm.


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Korean to English Translation Using Synchronous TAGs

Oct 24, 1994
Dania Egedi, Martha Palmer, Hyun S. Park, Aravind K. Joshi

It is often argued that accurate machine translation requires reference to contextual knowledge for the correct treatment of linguistic phenomena such as dropped arguments and accurate lexical selection. One of the historical arguments in favor of the interlingua approach has been that, since it revolves around a deep semantic representation, it is better able to handle the types of linguistic phenomena that are seen as requiring a knowledge-based approach. In this paper we present an alternative approach, exemplified by a prototype system for machine translation of English and Korean which is implemented in Synchronous TAGs. This approach is essentially transfer based, and uses semantic feature unification for accurate lexical selection of polysemous verbs. The same semantic features, when combined with a discourse model which stores previously mentioned entities, can also be used for the recovery of topicalized arguments. In this paper we concentrate on the translation of Korean to English.

* Proceedings of AMTA 94 
* ps file. 8 pages 

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