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"Topic": models, code, and papers

Graph Infomax Adversarial Learning for Treatment Effect Estimation with Networked Observational Data

Jun 05, 2021
Zhixuan Chu, Stephen L. Rathbun, Sheng Li

Treatment effect estimation from observational data is a critical research topic across many domains. The foremost challenge in treatment effect estimation is how to capture hidden confounders. Recently, the growing availability of networked observational data offers a new opportunity to deal with the issue of hidden confounders. Unlike networked data in traditional graph learning tasks, such as node classification and link detection, the networked data under the causal inference problem has its particularity, i.e., imbalanced network structure. In this paper, we propose a Graph Infomax Adversarial Learning (GIAL) model for treatment effect estimation, which makes full use of the network structure to capture more information by recognizing the imbalance in network structure. We evaluate the performance of our GIAL model on two benchmark datasets, and the results demonstrate superiority over the state-of-the-art methods.

* Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD '21), August 14--18, 2021, Virtual Event, Singapore 

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Text2Video: Text-driven Talking-head Video Synthesis with Phonetic Dictionary

Apr 29, 2021
Sibo Zhang, Jiahong Yuan, Miao Liao, Liangjun Zhang

With the advance of deep learning technology, automatic video generation from audio or text has become an emerging and promising research topic. In this paper, we present a novel approach to synthesize video from the text. The method builds a phoneme-pose dictionary and trains a generative adversarial network (GAN) to generate video from interpolated phoneme poses. Compared to audio-driven video generation algorithms, our approach has a number of advantages: 1) It only needs a fraction of the training data used by an audio-driven approach; 2) It is more flexible and not subject to vulnerability due to speaker variation; 3) It significantly reduces the preprocessing, training and inference time. We perform extensive experiments to compare the proposed method with state-of-the-art talking face generation methods on a benchmark dataset and datasets of our own. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our approach.

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Label Leakage and Protection in Two-party Split Learning

Feb 17, 2021
Oscar Li, Jiankai Sun, Xin Yang, Weihao Gao, Hongyi Zhang, Junyuan Xie, Virginia Smith, Chong Wang

In vertical federated learning, two-party split learning has become an important topic and has found many applications in real business scenarios. However, how to prevent the participants' ground-truth labels from possible leakage is not well studied. In this paper, we consider answering this question in an imbalanced binary classification setting, a common case in online business applications. We first show that, norm attack, a simple method that uses the norm of the communicated gradients between the parties, can largely reveal the ground-truth labels from the participants. We then discuss several protection techniques to mitigate this issue. Among them, we have designed a principled approach that directly maximizes the worst-case error of label detection. This is proved to be more effective in countering norm attack and beyond. We experimentally demonstrate the competitiveness of our proposed method compared to several other baselines.

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Graph Neural Networks: Taxonomy, Advances and Trends

Jan 18, 2021
Yu Zhou, Haixia Zheng, Xin Huang

Graph neural networks provide a powerful toolkit for embedding real-world graphs into low-dimensional spaces according to specific tasks. Up to now, there have been several surveys on this topic. However, they usually lay emphasis on different angles so that the readers can not see a panorama of the graph neural networks. This survey aims to overcome this limitation, and provide a comprehensive review on the graph neural networks. First of all, we provide a novel taxonomy for the graph neural networks, and then refer to up to 400 relevant literatures to show the panorama of the graph neural networks. All of them are classified into the corresponding categories. In order to drive the graph neural networks into a new stage, we summarize four future research directions so as to overcome the facing challenges. It is expected that more and more scholars can understand and exploit the graph neural networks, and use them in their research community.

* 42 pages, 7 figures 

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Universal Weighting Metric Learning for Cross-Modal Matching

Oct 07, 2020
Jiwei Wei, Xing Xu, Yang Yang, Yanli Ji, Zheng Wang, Heng Tao Shen

Cross-modal matching has been a highlighted research topic in both vision and language areas. Learning appropriate mining strategy to sample and weight informative pairs is crucial for the cross-modal matching performance. However, most existing metric learning methods are developed for unimodal matching, which is unsuitable for cross-modal matching on multimodal data with heterogeneous features. To address this problem, we propose a simple and interpretable universal weighting framework for cross-modal matching, which provides a tool to analyze the interpretability of various loss functions. Furthermore, we introduce a new polynomial loss under the universal weighting framework, which defines a weight function for the positive and negative informative pairs respectively. Experimental results on two image-text matching benchmarks and two video-text matching benchmarks validate the efficacy of the proposed method.

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Causality Learning: A New Perspective for Interpretable Machine Learning

Jun 27, 2020
Guandong Xu, Tri Dung Duong, Qian Li, Shaowu Liu, Xianzhi Wang

Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of machine learning in a wide range of fields such as image recognition, text classification, credit scoring prediction, recommendation system, etc. In spite of their great performance in different sectors, researchers still concern about the mechanism under any machine learning (ML) techniques that are inherently black-box and becoming more complex to achieve higher accuracy. Therefore, interpreting machine learning model is currently a mainstream topic in the research community. However, the traditional interpretable machine learning focuses on the association instead of the causality. This paper provides an overview of causal analysis with the fundamental background and key concepts, and then summarizes most recent causal approaches for interpretable machine learning. The evaluation techniques for assessing method quality, and open problems in causal interpretability are also discussed in this paper.

* 8 Pages 

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Scalable Psychological Momentum Forecasting in Esports

Feb 15, 2020
Alfonso White, Daniela M. Romano

The world of competitive Esports and video gaming has seen and continues to experience steady growth in popularity and complexity. Correspondingly, more research on the topic is being published, ranging from social network analyses to the benchmarking of advanced artificial intelligence systems in playing against humans. In this paper, we present ongoing work on an intelligent agent recommendation engine that suggests actions to players in order to maximise success and enjoyment, both in the space of in-game choices, as well as decisions made around play session timing in the broader context. By leveraging temporal data and appropriate models, we show that a learned representation of player psychological momentum, and of tilt, can be used, in combination with player expertise, to achieve state-of-the-art performance in pre- and post-draft win prediction. Our progress toward fulfilling the potential for deriving optimal recommendations is documented.

* Proceedings of Workshop SUM '20: State-based User Modelling, The 13th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining (WSDM '20), 2020 
* 8 pages, 8 figures 

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Adversarial Cross-Domain Action Recognition with Co-Attention

Dec 22, 2019
Boxiao Pan, Zhangjie Cao, Ehsan Adeli, Juan Carlos Niebles

Action recognition has been a widely studied topic with a heavy focus on supervised learning involving sufficient labeled videos. However, the problem of cross-domain action recognition, where training and testing videos are drawn from different underlying distributions, remains largely under-explored. Previous methods directly employ techniques for cross-domain image recognition, which tend to suffer from the severe temporal misalignment problem. This paper proposes a Temporal Co-attention Network (TCoN), which matches the distributions of temporally aligned action features between source and target domains using a novel cross-domain co-attention mechanism. Experimental results on three cross-domain action recognition datasets demonstrate that TCoN improves both previous single-domain and cross-domain methods significantly under the cross-domain setting.

* AAAI 2020 

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