In many modern day systems such as information extraction and knowledge management agents, ontologies play a vital role in maintaining the concept hierarchies of the selected domain. However, ontology population has become a problematic process due to its nature of heavy coupling with manual human intervention. With the use of word embeddings in the field of natural language processing, it became a popular topic due to its ability to cope up with semantic sensitivity. Hence, in this study, we propose a novel way of semi-supervised ontology population through word embeddings as the basis. We built several models including traditional benchmark models and new types of models which are based on word embeddings. Finally, we ensemble them together to come up with a synergistic model with better accuracy. We demonstrate that our ensemble model can outperform the individual models.
From linear classifiers to neural networks, image classification has been a widely explored topic in mathematics, and many algorithms have proven to be effective classifiers. However, the most accurate classifiers typically have significantly high storage costs, or require complicated procedures that may be computationally expensive. We present a novel (nonlinear) classification approach using truncation of local tensor singular value decompositions (tSVD) that robustly offers accurate results, while maintaining manageable storage costs. Our approach takes advantage of the optimality of the representation under the tensor algebra described to determine to which class an image belongs. We extend our approach to a method that can determine specific pairwise match scores, which could be useful in, for example, object recognition problems where pose/position are different. We demonstrate the promise of our new techniques on the MNIST data set.
Nearest neighbor search is a problem of finding the data points from the database such that the distances from them to the query point are the smallest. Learning to hash is one of the major solutions to this problem and has been widely studied recently. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the learning to hash algorithms, categorize them according to the manners of preserving the similarities into: pairwise similarity preserving, multiwise similarity preserving, implicit similarity preserving, as well as quantization, and discuss their relations. We separate quantization from pairwise similarity preserving as the objective function is very different though quantization, as we show, can be derived from preserving the pairwise similarities. In addition, we present the evaluation protocols, and the general performance analysis, and point out that the quantization algorithms perform superiorly in terms of search accuracy, search time cost, and space cost. Finally, we introduce a few emerging topics.
This contribution deals with image restoration in optical systems with coherent illumination, which is an important topic in astronomy, coherent microscopy and radar imaging. Such optical systems suffer from wavefront distortions, which are caused by imperfect imaging components and conditions. Known image restoration algorithms work well for incoherent imaging, they fail in case of coherent images. In this paper a novel wavefront correction algorithm is presented, which allows image restoration under coherent conditions. In most coherent imaging systems, especially in astronomy, the wavefront deformation is known. Using this information, the proposed algorithm allows a high quality restoration even in case of severe wavefront distortions. We present two versions of this algorithm, which are an evolution of the Gerchberg-Saxton and the Hybrid-Input-Output algorithm. The algorithm is verified on simulated and real microscopic images.
Wikipedia articles representing an entity or a topic in different language editions evolve independently within the scope of the language-specific user communities. This can lead to different points of views reflected in the articles, as well as complementary and inconsistent information. An analysis of how the information is propagated across the Wikipedia language editions can provide important insights in the article evolution along the temporal and cultural dimensions and support quality control. To facilitate such analysis, we present MultiWiki - a novel web-based user interface that provides an overview of the similarities and differences across the article pairs originating from different language editions on a timeline. MultiWiki enables users to observe the changes in the interlingual article similarity over time and to perform a detailed visual comparison of the article snapshots at a particular time point.
Written responses can provide a wealth of data in understanding student reasoning on a topic. Yet they are time- and labor-intensive to score, requiring many instructors to forego them except as limited parts of summative assessments at the end of a unit or course. Recent developments in Machine Learning (ML) have produced computational methods of scoring written responses for the presence or absence of specific concepts. Here, we compare the scores from one particular ML program -- EvoGrader -- to human scoring of responses to structurally- and content-similar questions that are distinct from the ones the program was trained on. We find that there is substantial inter-rater reliability between the human and ML scoring. However, sufficient systematic differences remain between the human and ML scoring that we advise only using the ML scoring for formative, rather than summative, assessment of student reasoning.
We introduce normalized nonnegative models (NNM) for explorative data analysis. NNMs are partial convexifications of models from probability theory. We demonstrate their value at the example of item recommendation. We show that NNM-based recommender systems satisfy three criteria that all recommender systems should ideally satisfy: high predictive power, computational tractability, and expressive representations of users and items. Expressive user and item representations are important in practice to succinctly summarize the pool of customers and the pool of items. In NNMs, user representations are expressive because each user's preference can be regarded as normalized mixture of preferences of stereotypical users. The interpretability of item and user representations allow us to arrange properties of items (e.g., genres of movies or topics of documents) or users (e.g., personality traits) hierarchically.
Stochastic algorithms are efficient approaches to solving machine learning and optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a general framework called Splash for parallelizing stochastic algorithms on multi-node distributed systems. Splash consists of a programming interface and an execution engine. Using the programming interface, the user develops sequential stochastic algorithms without concerning any detail about distributed computing. The algorithm is then automatically parallelized by a communication-efficient execution engine. We provide theoretical justifications on the optimal rate of convergence for parallelizing stochastic gradient descent. Splash is built on top of Apache Spark. The real-data experiments on logistic regression, collaborative filtering and topic modeling verify that Splash yields order-of-magnitude speedup over single-thread stochastic algorithms and over state-of-the-art implementations on Spark.
The whole world is changed rapidly and using the current technologies Internet becomes an essential need for everyone. Web is used in every field. Most of the people use web for a common purpose like online shopping, chatting etc. During an online shopping large number of reviews/opinions are given by the users that reflect whether the product is good or bad. These reviews need to be explored, analyse and organized for better decision making. Opinion Mining is a natural language processing task that deals with finding orientation of opinion in a piece of text with respect to a topic. In this paper a document based opinion mining system is proposed that classify the documents as positive, negative and neutral. Negation is also handled in the proposed system. Experimental results using reviews of movies show the effectiveness of the system.
Researchers and scientists increasingly find themselves in the position of having to quickly understand large amounts of technical material. Our goal is to effectively serve this need by using bibliometric text mining and summarization techniques to generate summaries of scientific literature. We show how we can use citations to produce automatically generated, readily consumable, technical extractive summaries. We first propose C-LexRank, a model for summarizing single scientific articles based on citations, which employs community detection and extracts salient information-rich sentences. Next, we further extend our experiments to summarize a set of papers, which cover the same scientific topic. We generate extractive summaries of a set of Question Answering (QA) and Dependency Parsing (DP) papers, their abstracts, and their citation sentences and show that citations have unique information amenable to creating a summary.