The third version of the open-domain dialogue system Alquist developed within the Alexa Prize 2020 competition is designed to conduct coherent and engaging conversations on popular topics. The main novel contribution is the introduction of a system leveraging an innovative approach based on a conversational knowledge graph and adjacency pairs. The conversational knowledge graph allows the system to utilize knowledge expressed during the dialogue in consequent turns and across conversations. Dialogue adjacency pairs divide the conversation into small conversational structures, which can be combined and allow the system to react to a wide range of user inputs flexibly. We discuss and describe Alquist's pipeline, data acquisition and processing, dialogue manager, NLG, knowledge aggregation, and a hierarchy of adjacency pairs. We present the experimental results of the individual parts of the system.
We explore the task of predicting the leading political ideology or bias of news articles. First, we collect and release a large dataset of 34,737 articles that were manually annotated for political ideology -left, center, or right-, which is well-balanced across both topics and media. We further use a challenging experimental setup where the test examples come from media that were not seen during training, which prevents the model from learning to detect the source of the target news article instead of predicting its political ideology. From a modeling perspective, we propose an adversarial media adaptation, as well as a specially adapted triplet loss. We further add background information about the source, and we show that it is quite helpful for improving article-level prediction. Our experimental results show very sizable improvements over using state-of-the-art pre-trained Transformers in this challenging setup.
Stochastic optimization lies at the heart of machine learning, and its cornerstone is stochastic gradient descent (SGD), a method introduced over 60 years ago. The last 8 years have seen an exciting new development: variance reduction (VR) for stochastic optimization methods. These VR methods excel in settings where more than one pass through the training data is allowed, achieving a faster convergence than SGD in theory as well as practice. These speedups underline the surge of interest in VR methods and the fast-growing body of work on this topic. This review covers the key principles and main developments behind VR methods for optimization with finite data sets and is aimed at non-expert readers. We focus mainly on the convex setting, and leave pointers to readers interested in extensions for minimizing non-convex functions.
We rely on arguments in our daily lives to deliver our opinions and base them on evidence, making them more convincing in turn. However, finding and formulating arguments can be challenging. In this work, we train a language model for argument generation that can be controlled on a fine-grained level to generate sentence-level arguments for a given topic, stance, and aspect. We define argument aspect detection as a necessary method to allow this fine-granular control and crowdsource a dataset with 5,032 arguments annotated with aspects. Our evaluation shows that our generation model is able to generate high-quality, aspect-specific arguments. Moreover, these arguments can be used to improve the performance of stance detection models via data augmentation and to generate counter-arguments. We publish all datasets and code to fine-tune the language model.
Visual semantic correspondence is an important topic in computer vision and could help machine understand objects in our daily life. However, most previous methods directly train on correspondences in 2D images, which is end-to-end but loses plenty of information in 3D spaces. In this paper, we propose a new method on predicting semantic correspondences by leveraging it to 3D domain and then project corresponding 3D models back to 2D domain, with their semantic labels. Our method leverages the advantages in 3D vision and can explicitly reason about objects self-occlusion and visibility. We show that our method gives comparative and even superior results on standard semantic benchmarks. We also conduct thorough and detailed experiments to analyze our network components. The code and experiments are publicly available at https://github.com/qq456cvb/SemanticTransfer.
Music Generation (MG) is an interesting research topic that links the art of music and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The goal is to train an artificial composer to generate infinite, fresh, and pleasurable musical pieces. Music has different parts such as melody, harmony, and rhythm. In this paper, we propose a Generative Genetic Algorithm (GGA) to produce a melody automatically. The main GGA uses a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network as the objective function, which should be trained by a spectrum of bad-to-good melodies. These melodies have to be provided by another GGA with a different objective function. Good melodies have been provided by CAMPINs collection. We have considered the rhythm in this work, too. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed GGA method is able to generate eligible melodies with natural transitions and without rhythm error.
Research in the social sciences and psychology has shown that the persuasiveness of an argument depends not only the language employed, but also on attributes of the source/communicator, the audience, and the appropriateness and strength of the argument's claims given the pragmatic and discourse context of the argument. Among these characteristics of persuasive arguments, prior work in NLP does not explicitly investigate the effect of the pragmatic and discourse context when determining argument quality. This paper presents a new dataset to initiate the study of this aspect of argumentation: it consists of a diverse collection of arguments covering 741 controversial topics and comprising over 47,000 claims. We further propose predictive models that incorporate the pragmatic and discourse context of argumentative claims and show that they outperform models that rely only on claim-specific linguistic features for predicting the perceived impact of individual claims within a particular line of argument.
Deep Learning (DL) is vulnerable to out-of-distribution and adversarial examples resulting in incorrect outputs. To make DL more robust, several posthoc anomaly detection techniques to detect (and discard) these anomalous samples have been proposed in the recent past. This survey tries to provide a structured and comprehensive overview of the research on anomaly detection for DL based applications. We provide a taxonomy for existing techniques based on their underlying assumptions and adopted approaches. We discuss various techniques in each of the categories and provide the relative strengths and weaknesses of the approaches. Our goal in this survey is to provide an easier yet better understanding of the techniques belonging to different categories in which research has been done on this topic. Finally, we highlight the unsolved research challenges while applying anomaly detection techniques in DL systems and present some high-impact future research directions.
In many applications, accurate class probability estimates are required, but many types of models produce poor quality probability estimates despite achieving acceptable classification accuracy. Even though probability calibration has been a hot topic of research in recent times, the majority of this has investigated non-sequential data. In this paper, we consider calibrating models that produce class probability estimates from sequences of data, focusing on the case where predictions are obtained from incomplete sequences. We show that traditional calibration techniques are not sufficiently expressive for this task, and propose methods that adapt calibration schemes depending on the length of an input sequence. Experimental evaluation shows that the proposed methods are often substantially more effective at calibrating probability estimates from modern sequential architectures for incomplete sequences across a range of application domains.